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86 terms

Abnormal findings ear, nose, throat, head, and neck

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Hemotympanum
a bluish tinge to the tympanic membrane indicating the presence of blood in the middle ear usually caused by head trauma
Otitis Externa
infection of the outer ear causes redness and swelling of the auricle and ear canal, drainage is usually scanty and may be sccompanied by itching, fever, and enlarged lymph nodes
Otitis Media
infection of the middle ear producting a red, bulging eardrum, fever, and hearing loss
Perforation of the tympanic membrane
rupturing of the eardrum due to trauma or infection, may be seen as a dark spot on the eardrum
Scarred tympanic membrane
a condition in which the eardrum has white patches of scar tissue due to repeated ear infections
Tophi
small white nodules on the helix or antihelix contain uric acid crystals and are a sign of gout
Tympanostomy tubes
ear tubes inserted to relieve middle ear pressure and allow drainage from repeated middle ear infections
Epistaxis
nosebleed
Rhinitis
nasal inflammation usually due to a viral infection or allergy accompanied by watery discharge, stuffed up nose, and sneezing
Sinusitis
inflammation of the sinuses usually following an upper respiratory infection causes facial pain, inflammation, discharge and possibly fever, chills, headache, or a dull, pulsating pain in the cheeks or teeth
Deviated septum
a slight ingrowth of the lower nasal septum
nasal polyps
pale, round, firm, nonpainful overgrowth of nasal mucosa usually caused by chronic allergic rhinitis
Perforated septum
a hole in the septum caused by chronic infection, trauma, or sniffing cocaine
ankyloglossia
fixation of the tip of the tongue to the floor of hte mouth due to a shortened lingual frenulum
aphthous ulcers
small round white lesions occuring singularly or in clusters on the oral mucosa
Black hairy tongue
caused by the inhibition of normal bacteria and the overgrowth of fungus on the papillae of the tongue
gingival hyperplasia
an enlargement of the gums frequently seen in pregnancy, in leukemia, or after prolonged use of phenytoin (Dilantin)
Gingivitis
inflammation of the gums may be caused by poor dental hygiene or a deficiency of vitamin c
tonsillitis
inflammation of the tonsils throat is red and the tonsils are swollen and covered by white or yellow patches or exudate
smooth tongue
condition occuring as a result of vitamin B and iron deficiency the tongue is smooth and red with a shiny appearance
herpes simplex
virus that is often accompanied by clear vesicles usually at the junction of the skin and the lip
Carcinoma
oral cancers are most commonly found on the lower lip or the base (underside) of the tongue
Leukoplakia
whitish thickening of the mucous membrane in the mouth or tongue
Classic migraine
preceded by an aura during which the client may feel depressed, restless, or irritable, see spots or flashes of light, feel nauseated, or experience numbing or tingling in the face or extremities (may be light sensitive, have nausea, vertigo, and tremors)
Cluster headache
no aura, sudden onset and may be associated with alcohol consumption, stress, or emotional distress (often begin at night with excruciating pain on one side of the face spreading upward behind one eye, the nose and affected eye may water and nasal congestion is common
Tension headache
caused by sustained contraction of the muscles in the head, neck, or upper back, gradual onset with steady pain not throbbing, may be unilateral or bilateral and typically ranges from teh cervical region to the top of the head
Hydrocephalus
enlargement of the head caused by inadequate drainage of cerbrospinal fluid, resulting in abnormal growth of the skull
Craniosynostosis
early closure of the sutures, with early closure of the sagittal sutures, the head elongates / with early closure of the coronal sutures, the head, face, and orbits are altered
Acromegaly
enlargement of the bones, and facial features due to increased growth hormone
Bell's Palsy
temporary disorder affecting cranial nerve VII and producing a unilateral facial paralysis sudden onset and usually resolves spontaneously in a few weeks
Cushing's syndrome
increased adrenal hormone production leading to a rounded "moon" face, ruddy cheecks, prominent jowls, and excess facial hair
Down syndrome
chromosomal defect causing varying degrees of mental retardation and characteristic facial features such as slanged eyes, a flat nasal bridge, a flat nose, a protruding tongue, and a short, broad neck
Parkinson's disease
a masklike expression occurs in Parkinson's disease, the disease is the result of a decrease in dopamine, a neurotransmitter
Brain attack
can result in neuroloic deficits that include facial paralysis
Fetal alcohol syndrome
disorder characterized by epicanthal folds, narrow palpebral fissures, a deformed upper lip below the septum of the nose, and some degree of mental retardation (seen in infants of mothers whose intake of alcohol during pregnancy was significant)
Torticollis
spasm of the sternocleidomastoid muscle on one side of the body, which often results from birth trauma (if left untreated, the muscle becomes fibrotic adn permanently shortened)
Hyperthyroidism
excessive production of thyroid hormones results in enlargement of the gland, exophthalmos (bulging eyes), fine hair, weight loss, diarrhea, and other alterations
Goiter
an enlargement of the thyroid gland
Grave's disease
a type of hyperthyroidism that may be an autoimmune response or related to hereditary factors
Thyroid adenoma
refers to benign thyroid nodules that occur most frequently in older adults, no known cause
Thyroid carcinoma
malignant tumors in hormone-producing cells or supporting cells, excess thyroid hormone is produced in the tumors
Hyperthyroidism and medication
excessive iodine in some medications may cause oversecretion of thyroid hormones
Hypothyroidism
occurs when there is a decrease in production of thyroid hormones most commonly caused by an iodine deficiency or an autoimmune response
Congenital hypothyroidism
the thyroid is nonfunctioning at birth if untreated it results in etardation of physical and mental growth
Myxedema
severe form of hypothyroidism causes nonpitting edema throughout the body and thickening of facial features,
Thyroiditis
an inflammation of the thyroid gland, and this inflammation may cause release of stored hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism of weeks or months
Postpartum thyroiditis
a temporary condition occuring in 5%- to 9% of females postpartum
Hashimoto's thyroiditis
an autoimmune disease that is htought to be hereditary and results in primary hypothyroidism
Visual acuity
dependent upon the ability of the eye to refract light rays and focus them upon the retina,
Emmetropia
the normal refractive condition of the eye in which light rays are brought into sharp focus on the retina
Myopia
generally inherited and occurs when the eye is longer than normal light rays focus in front of the retina (nearsightedness)
Hyperopia
an inherited condition in which the eye is shorter than normal . light rays focus behind the retina (farsightedness)
Astigmatism
a familial condition in which the refraction of light is spread over a wide area rather than on a distinct point on the retina (vision may be blurred or doubled)
visual fields
refers to the total area in which objects can be seen in the periphery while the eye remains focused on a central point,
cardinal fields of gaze
eye movement is controlled by six extraocular muscles and by cranial nerves III, IV, and VI
Strabismus
condition in which the axes of the eyes cannot be directed at the same object (esotropia = convergent in which the eye deviates inward exotropia = divergent in which the deviation is outward)
Esophoria
inward turning of the eye
Exophoria
outward turning of the eye
problems with extraocular muscles or cranial nerves
nonparallel eye movements and failure of the eyes to follow in a certain direction are indicative of
Adie's pupil
unilateral and sluggish pupillary response
Argyll robertson pupils
pupils exist bilaterally and are small, irregular, and nonreactive to light (occur with central nervous system disorders including tumor, syphilis, and narcotic use
Anisocoria
unequal pupillary size, which may be a normal finding or may indicate central nervous system disease
Cranial nerve III damage
results in a unilaterally dilated pupil, there is no reaction to light, ptosis may be seen
Horner's syndrome
result of blockage of sympathetic nerve stimulation , findings include unilateral, small regular pupil that is nonreactive to light, Ptosis and anhidrosis of the same side accompany the pupillary signs
Mydriasis
refers to fixed and constricted pupils this condition may occur with the use of narcotics, with damage to the pons, or as a result of treatment for glaucoma
Monocular blindness
results in direct and consensual response to light directed in the normal eye and absence of response in either eye when light is directed in the blind eye
Acute glaucoma
result of sudden increase in intraocular pressure resulting from blocked flow of fluid from the anterior chamber, the pupil is oval in shape and dilated, there is circumcorneal redness and the cornea appears cloudy and steamy (accompanied by decrease in vision and halos around lights)
basal cell carcinoma
has a papular appearance and usually seen on the lower lid and medial canthus
Blepharitis
inflammation of the eyelids a staphylococcal infection leads to red, scaly, and crusted lids - they eye burns, itches, and tears
Cataract
an opacity in the lens usually occurs in aging
Chalazion
a firm, nontender nodule on the eyelid, arising from infection of the meibomian gland, not painful unless inflamed
Conjunctivitis
an infection of the conjunctiva usually due to bacteria or virus but which may result from chemical exposure
Ectropion
eversion of the lower eyelid caused by muscle weakness, the palpebral conjunctiva is exposed
Entropion
is inversion of the lid and lashes caused by muscle spasm of the eyelid - friction from lashses can cause corneal irritation
Hordeolum (Stye)
a result of a staphylococcal infectionof hair follicles on the margin of the lids the affected eye is swollen, red, and painful
Iritis
a serious disorder characterized by redness around the iris and cornea the pupil is often irregular, vision is decreased adn the client experiences deep aching pain
Periorbital edema
refers to swollen, puffy lids occurs wit crying, infection, and systemic problems including kidney failure, heart failure, and allergy
Ptosis
refers to drooping of the eyelid, occurs with cranial nerve damage or systemic neuromuscular weakness
Diabetic Retinopathy
refers to changes that occur in teh retina and vasculature of the retia including microaneurysms, hemorrhages, macular edema, and retinal exudates
Hypertensive Retinopathy
refers to the changes in the retina and vasculature of the retina in response to elevations in blood pressure that accompany atherosclerosis, heart disease, and kidney disease--- changes include flame hemorrhages, nicking of vessels, and "cotton wool: spots that arise from infarction of the nerve fibers
Macular degeneration
is a degenerative condition of the macula, the central retina, central vision is lost gradually while peripheral vision remains intact, the eyes are affected at different rates
Atoxic gait
a walk characterized by a wide base, unevensteps, feet slapping, and a tendency to sway, this type of walk associated with posterior column disease or decreased proprioception regarding extremities seen inmultiple sclerosis and drug or alcohol intoxication
Scissors gait
a walk characterized by spastic lower limbs adn movement in a stiff, jerky manner, the knees come together, the legs cross in front of one another, and the legs are abducted as the indivdual takes short, progressive, slow steps- this is seen in individuals with multiple sclerosis
Steppage gait
sometimes called " foot drop" walk, the individual has stooped posture, takes short steps, and turns stiffly, there is a slow start to the walk and frequent, accelerated steps, this gait is associated with basal ganglia disease.
Fasciculation
commonly called a twitch, this is an involuntary, local, visible muscular contraction - it is not significant when it occurs in tired muscles. It can be associated with motor neuron disease
Tic
commonly called a habit, is usually psychogenic in nature - the