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What occurs during breakdown?

proteins to amino acids, starch to glucose

What are the two categories of breakdown?

catabolism and anabolism

Amino acids become proteins and glucose becomes starch through __________.


Proteins become amino acids and starch becomes glucose during __________.


Conversion of larger molecules to smaller ones


Conversion of smaller molecules to larger ones


What are the three types of foodstuffs?

carbohydrates, lipids, proteins

Types of carbohydrates

sugars and starches

Starches and sugars are...


The basic unit of a carbohydrate is a...


Types of lipids

terroids and fats

Fats include...

glycerol molecules and fatty acids

The basic unit of a lipid is a...


A monoglyceride contains...

1 glycerol and 1 fatty acid

Types of monosaccharides

glucose, fructose, galactose

The basic unit of a protien is...

amino acid

Proteins are broken down by ________ into _______ for usage.

catabolism, amino acids

There are ___ essential amino acids in the body and ___ are consumed in proteins.

10, 10

Enzymes are created by...


________ are responsible for converting molecules A to B


Metabolic diseases are caused by errors in the processes of ________.


An error in the production of pigments results in


Autotrophs use __________ as a carbon source.

inorganic CO2

Autotrophs make their own food by...

reducing CO2

Autotrophs are...


Heterotrophs use __________ as a carbon source.

organic molecules

Heterotrophs use _______________ for food

ready-made organic molecules

Heterotrophs are...


Photoheterotrophs use ______ as an energy source.


Two examples of photoheterotrophs are...

purple non-sulfur bacteria and green non-sulfur bacteria

Chemoheterotrophs use _______ as an energy source

chemical reactions

Chemoheterotrophs include...

most bacteria, all protozoans, all fungi, and all animals

Photoautotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.

sun, CO2, purple and green sulfur bacteria

Photoheterotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.

sun, organic compounds, purple and green non-sulfur bacteria

Chemoautotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.

chemical bonds, CO2, H S Fe N bacteria

Chemoheterotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.

chemical bonds, organic compounds, most organisms (including humans!)

Summary equation for photosynthesis

CO2 + H20 (sunlight (top))-->(chlorophyll (bottom)) C6H12O6 + O2

Summary equation for aerobic respiration

C6H12O6 (enzymes)--> CO2 + H2O + energy (ATP)

Anaerobic fermentation includes...

lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation

Summary equation for lactic acid fermentation

2ATP +C6H12O6 (enzymes)--> C3H6O3 + 4ATP

Summary equation for alcoholic fermentation

2ATP + C6H12O6 (enzymes)--> C2H5OH + CO2 + 4ATP

Carbohydrates undergo _______ to become ________ which then goes through __________ which yields _____________ which is later converted to _____________ which releases ____.

hydrolysis, glucose, glycolysis, 2 pyruvic acid, Acetyl CoA, CO2

Energy produced by converting ATP to ADP is used for...

muscle contraction and cellular respiration


ADP + P (enzymes)--> ATP


ATP (enzymes)--> ADP + P + energy

Metabolism is...

all of the chemical reactions within a living organism

Catabolism is...

the breakdown of complex organic molecules

Enzymes are...

biological catalysts that speed up and direct chemical reactions

All enzymes are...


Enzymes are coded for by a...


All enzymes end in...


The name of an enzyme is often determined by the...

name of the substrate it reacts with

___________ are not used up in chemical reactions.


Enzymes are ________ in chemical reactions.


Enzyme specificity can be explained by the...

Lock and Key theory

Lactic acid fermentation occurs in ________ cells.


Alcohol fermentation produces...

ethyl alcohol, acetic acid

The TCA cycle is also known as the...

kreb's cycle, citric acid cycle

The TCA cycle occurs in the...

matrix of the mitochondria

The electron transport chain is in the...

christae of the mitochondria

Glycolysis occurs in the...

cytoplasm (cytosol)

End products of glycolysis include...

2 pyruvic acid, 4 ATP (net gain of 2)

How many ATP per NADH?


How many ATP per FADH?


Aerobic respiration produces ___ ATP


Anaerobic respiration produces ___ ATP


Draw a diagram for chemiosmosis and ATP synthase.

done? (H+ from high concentration to low concentration, P+ADP-->ATP)

Chemiosmosis is...

the diffusion of ions through a semipermeable membrane

ATP synthase is...

an enzyme which can synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate

___________ catalyzes the phosphorylation of ATP to ADP

ATP synthase

ATP is converted to ADP by the process of...

oxidative phosphorylation

In aerobic respiration, C6H12O6 comes from

the digestive system and liver (glycogen)

What is glycogen?

a polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and is converted to glucose as needed in the liver

In aerobic respiration, where do the resulting 6 CO2 molecules come from?

transformation of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA and Kreb's cycle

In aerobic respiration, where does the resulting H2O molecule come from?

H+ from the electron transport system combines with O2 at the end of the electron transport system (O2 is the final H+ receptor)

In aerobic respiration, where do the 38 ATP produced come from?

32 from electron transport chain, 2 from glycolysis, 4 from kreb's cycle

Glycolysis produces __ NADH


4 ATP are produced from the Kreb's cycle as a result of...

substrate phosphorylation

How many ATP per FADH2?


What are the two types of phosphorylation?

substrate and oxidative

Give six characteristics of enzymes.

proteins, not used up in chemical process, affected by temperature and pH, speed up or slow down chemical reactions, 3D shape (the shape is very important), under control of inherited genes

________________ is teh control mechanism of enzymes.

negative feedback control

During negative feedback control...

the concentration of final products increases and shuts off one step of enzymes which shuts off the processes

Coenzymes are synthesized from...


Cofactors are synthesized from...

metal ions

Enzymes operate as a...

lock and key

The two sites of an enzyme are called the...

active site and the allosteric site

The enzyme and the substrate fit together at the...

active site

The reaction is controlled by the...

allosteric site

_________ are key proteins which determine the properties of a cell.


The substance an enzyme converts is the...


Enzymes convert substrates into...


In milk spoilage, lactose acts as a _______ and lactic acid is the _________.

substrate, product

Enzymes can convert substrates to a product at a rate of...

1 million substrate molecules per second

Enzymes allow organisms to live by taking the place of...

high heat and pressure

Enzymes are present...

on and beneath Earth's surface

Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering...

activation energy

The level of energy of motion in a molecule is that molecule's...

kinetic energy

Heat is necessary for H to break the ________ bonds of ___ or for O to push apart ____ to form ____ bonds.

covalent, O2, H2, OH

The energy required to start a reaction is the...

energy of activation

How do enzymes operate?

the substrate fits the shape of the enzyme that acts on it and combines with a weak bonding force to the substrate which stresses chemical bonds of the substrate and weakens bonds, breaks them apart, and forms new bonds

During the first step an enzyme takes in catalyzing a reaction, the substrate binds to the ________ site forming _________.

active or catalytic, enzyme-substrate complex

During the second step an enzyme takes in catalyzing a reaction, the _________ are released and the enzyme...

products of the reaction; is unchanged and combines with new substrate molecules

In the "lock and key" arrangement of enzymes, the key is the _____ and the lock is the _____.

substrate, enzyme

Some enzymes require _______ for their function


Coenzymes are...

small, non-protein molecules

NAD is a...


NAD stands for...

nicotinamide adenide dinucleotide

NAD is _______ the size of a nucleotide


What is the function of coenzymes?

transfer molecules, atoms, or electrons from one molecule to another

Coenzymes transfer ___________ from one molecule to another

molecules, atoms, electrons

Coenzymes can either __________ or ________ an enzyme during the transfer of a molecule.

stay bound to, leave

Each coenzyme can transfer...

only one specific molecule, atom, or electron

By associating with different enzymes, coenzymes can...

catalyze different reactions

Coenzymes can be...


Minute quantities of both ______ and _______ are required in each cell because they are continually recycled.

enzymes, coenzyes

All coenzymes are synthesized from...


Factors which influence enzyme activity include...

temperature, pH, salt concentration

Bacteria grow more rapidly at ______ temperatures.


After reacting with an enzyme and coenzyme to release products, the remaning substrate may be carried away by an...

acceptor molecule

Too high temperatures may _______ proteins and cause enzymes to be ________.

denature, nonfunctional

Most enzymes function best at _____ salt concentrations and pH values slightly above __. These are the ideal growth conditions of organisms harboring the enzymes.

low, 7

Compounds which inhibit enzymes include...

cyanide, arsenic, mercury, nerve gases

All compounds which inhibit enzymes are considered...


To inhibit an enzyme, a compound must...

combine with the enzyme to prevent its function

When the inhibitor binds to but readily separates, or dissociates, from the enzyme, it has undergone...

reversible inhibition

When the inhibitor binds very strongly to the enzyme but does not dissociate readily, it has undergone...

irreversible inhibition

Attachment of the inhibitor often occurs at the ____________ or the enzyme and prevents the substrate from binding to this site.

active site

The simplest type of reversible inhibition in which the inhibitor has a similar structure to the substrate is...

competitive inhibition

To inhibit PABA production, _______ are used.

sulfa drugs

The reasons for irreversible inhibition are that...

1. the inhibitor binds so strongly to the enzyme that it does not separate 2. the inhibitor changes important amino acids in the enzyme so that it may no longer function

________ inhibits cysteine by oxidizing S--H groups and converting cysteine to the amino acid, cystine.


Over _______ enzymes have been discovered and named.


There are ___ categories of enzyme based on the reactions they catalyze.


Enzymes are often named after _____, but are sometimes named after ________.

the substrate it acts on, the reaction it catalyzes

The enzyme which bonds subunits of DNA (nucleotides) to form DNA polymer is...

DNA polymerase

What does FAD stand for?

flavin adenine dinucleotide

NAD is a _______ synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.

coenzyme, nyacin, hydrogen atoms (protons and electrons)

FAD is a _______ synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.

coenzyme, riboflavin, hydrogen atoms

Coenzyme A is synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.

pantothenic acid, acetyl groups (2-carbon molecules)

Thiamine pyrophosphate is synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.

thiamine, aldehydes

Pyridoxal phosphate is synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.

pyridoxine, amino group

Tetrahydrofolic acid is synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.

folic acid, 1-carbon atom

The collective biochemical reactions which take place within a cell is...


Any compound produced in metabolism is a...


To survive, microorganisms must...


Multiplication requires synthesis of...

chromosomes, ribosomes, and cell walls

Reactions involved int he synthesis of cell components are...

anabolic reactions

The collective anabolic reactions in a cell are known as...


See more

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