305 terms

Metabolic Pathways

What occurs during breakdown?
proteins to amino acids, starch to glucose
What are the two categories of breakdown?
catabolism and anabolism
Amino acids become proteins and glucose becomes starch through __________.
Proteins become amino acids and starch becomes glucose during __________.
Conversion of larger molecules to smaller ones
Conversion of smaller molecules to larger ones
What are the three types of foodstuffs?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
Types of carbohydrates
sugars and starches
Starches and sugars are...
The basic unit of a carbohydrate is a...
Types of lipids
terroids and fats
Fats include...
glycerol molecules and fatty acids
The basic unit of a lipid is a...
A monoglyceride contains...
1 glycerol and 1 fatty acid
Types of monosaccharides
glucose, fructose, galactose
The basic unit of a protien is...
amino acid
Proteins are broken down by ________ into _______ for usage.
catabolism, amino acids
There are ___ essential amino acids in the body and ___ are consumed in proteins.
10, 10
Enzymes are created by...
________ are responsible for converting molecules A to B
Metabolic diseases are caused by errors in the processes of ________.
An error in the production of pigments results in
Autotrophs use __________ as a carbon source.
inorganic CO2
Autotrophs make their own food by...
reducing CO2
Autotrophs are...
Heterotrophs use __________ as a carbon source.
organic molecules
Heterotrophs use _______________ for food
ready-made organic molecules
Heterotrophs are...
Photoheterotrophs use ______ as an energy source.
Two examples of photoheterotrophs are...
purple non-sulfur bacteria and green non-sulfur bacteria
Chemoheterotrophs use _______ as an energy source
chemical reactions
Chemoheterotrophs include...
most bacteria, all protozoans, all fungi, and all animals
Photoautotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.
sun, CO2, purple and green sulfur bacteria
Photoheterotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.
sun, organic compounds, purple and green non-sulfur bacteria
Chemoautotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.
chemical bonds, CO2, H S Fe N bacteria
Chemoheterotrophs use _______ for energy, ________ as a carbon source, and include _________.
chemical bonds, organic compounds, most organisms (including humans!)
Summary equation for photosynthesis
CO2 + H20 (sunlight (top))-->(chlorophyll (bottom)) C6H12O6 + O2
Summary equation for aerobic respiration
C6H12O6 (enzymes)--> CO2 + H2O + energy (ATP)
Anaerobic fermentation includes...
lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation
Summary equation for lactic acid fermentation
2ATP +C6H12O6 (enzymes)--> C3H6O3 + 4ATP
Summary equation for alcoholic fermentation
2ATP + C6H12O6 (enzymes)--> C2H5OH + CO2 + 4ATP
Carbohydrates undergo _______ to become ________ which then goes through __________ which yields _____________ which is later converted to _____________ which releases ____.
hydrolysis, glucose, glycolysis, 2 pyruvic acid, Acetyl CoA, CO2
Energy produced by converting ATP to ADP is used for...
muscle contraction and cellular respiration
ADP + P (enzymes)--> ATP
ATP (enzymes)--> ADP + P + energy
Metabolism is...
all of the chemical reactions within a living organism
Catabolism is...
the breakdown of complex organic molecules
Enzymes are...
biological catalysts that speed up and direct chemical reactions
All enzymes are...
Enzymes are coded for by a...
All enzymes end in...
The name of an enzyme is often determined by the...
name of the substrate it reacts with
___________ are not used up in chemical reactions.
Enzymes are ________ in chemical reactions.
Enzyme specificity can be explained by the...
Lock and Key theory
Lactic acid fermentation occurs in ________ cells.
Alcohol fermentation produces...
ethyl alcohol, acetic acid
The TCA cycle is also known as the...
kreb's cycle, citric acid cycle
The TCA cycle occurs in the...
matrix of the mitochondria
The electron transport chain is in the...
christae of the mitochondria
Glycolysis occurs in the...
cytoplasm (cytosol)
End products of glycolysis include...
2 pyruvic acid, 4 ATP (net gain of 2)
How many ATP per NADH?
How many ATP per FADH?
Aerobic respiration produces ___ ATP
Anaerobic respiration produces ___ ATP
Draw a diagram for chemiosmosis and ATP synthase.
done? (H+ from high concentration to low concentration, P+ADP-->ATP)
Chemiosmosis is...
the diffusion of ions through a semipermeable membrane
ATP synthase is...
an enzyme which can synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate
___________ catalyzes the phosphorylation of ATP to ADP
ATP synthase
ATP is converted to ADP by the process of...
oxidative phosphorylation
In aerobic respiration, C6H12O6 comes from
the digestive system and liver (glycogen)
What is glycogen?
a polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals and is converted to glucose as needed in the liver
In aerobic respiration, where do the resulting 6 CO2 molecules come from?
transformation of pyruvate to Acetyl CoA and Kreb's cycle
In aerobic respiration, where does the resulting H2O molecule come from?
H+ from the electron transport system combines with O2 at the end of the electron transport system (O2 is the final H+ receptor)
In aerobic respiration, where do the 38 ATP produced come from?
32 from electron transport chain, 2 from glycolysis, 4 from kreb's cycle
Glycolysis produces __ NADH
4 ATP are produced from the Kreb's cycle as a result of...
substrate phosphorylation
How many ATP per FADH2?
What are the two types of phosphorylation?
substrate and oxidative
Give six characteristics of enzymes.
proteins, not used up in chemical process, affected by temperature and pH, speed up or slow down chemical reactions, 3D shape (the shape is very important), under control of inherited genes
________________ is teh control mechanism of enzymes.
negative feedback control
During negative feedback control...
the concentration of final products increases and shuts off one step of enzymes which shuts off the processes
Coenzymes are synthesized from...
Cofactors are synthesized from...
metal ions
Enzymes operate as a...
lock and key
The two sites of an enzyme are called the...
active site and the allosteric site
The enzyme and the substrate fit together at the...
active site
The reaction is controlled by the...
allosteric site
_________ are key proteins which determine the properties of a cell.
The substance an enzyme converts is the...
Enzymes convert substrates into...
In milk spoilage, lactose acts as a _______ and lactic acid is the _________.
substrate, product
Enzymes can convert substrates to a product at a rate of...
1 million substrate molecules per second
Enzymes allow organisms to live by taking the place of...
high heat and pressure
Enzymes are present...
on and beneath Earth's surface
Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering...
activation energy
The level of energy of motion in a molecule is that molecule's...
kinetic energy
Heat is necessary for H to break the ________ bonds of ___ or for O to push apart ____ to form ____ bonds.
covalent, O2, H2, OH
The energy required to start a reaction is the...
energy of activation
How do enzymes operate?
the substrate fits the shape of the enzyme that acts on it and combines with a weak bonding force to the substrate which stresses chemical bonds of the substrate and weakens bonds, breaks them apart, and forms new bonds
During the first step an enzyme takes in catalyzing a reaction, the substrate binds to the ________ site forming _________.
active or catalytic, enzyme-substrate complex
During the second step an enzyme takes in catalyzing a reaction, the _________ are released and the enzyme...
products of the reaction; is unchanged and combines with new substrate molecules
In the "lock and key" arrangement of enzymes, the key is the _____ and the lock is the _____.
substrate, enzyme
Some enzymes require _______ for their function
Coenzymes are...
small, non-protein molecules
NAD is a...
NAD stands for...
nicotinamide adenide dinucleotide
NAD is _______ the size of a nucleotide
What is the function of coenzymes?
transfer molecules, atoms, or electrons from one molecule to another
Coenzymes transfer ___________ from one molecule to another
molecules, atoms, electrons
Coenzymes can either __________ or ________ an enzyme during the transfer of a molecule.
stay bound to, leave
Each coenzyme can transfer...
only one specific molecule, atom, or electron
By associating with different enzymes, coenzymes can...
catalyze different reactions
Coenzymes can be...
Minute quantities of both ______ and _______ are required in each cell because they are continually recycled.
enzymes, coenzyes
All coenzymes are synthesized from...
Factors which influence enzyme activity include...
temperature, pH, salt concentration
Bacteria grow more rapidly at ______ temperatures.
After reacting with an enzyme and coenzyme to release products, the remaning substrate may be carried away by an...
acceptor molecule
Too high temperatures may _______ proteins and cause enzymes to be ________.
denature, nonfunctional
Most enzymes function best at _____ salt concentrations and pH values slightly above __. These are the ideal growth conditions of organisms harboring the enzymes.
low, 7
Compounds which inhibit enzymes include...
cyanide, arsenic, mercury, nerve gases
All compounds which inhibit enzymes are considered...
To inhibit an enzyme, a compound must...
combine with the enzyme to prevent its function
When the inhibitor binds to but readily separates, or dissociates, from the enzyme, it has undergone...
reversible inhibition
When the inhibitor binds very strongly to the enzyme but does not dissociate readily, it has undergone...
irreversible inhibition
Attachment of the inhibitor often occurs at the ____________ or the enzyme and prevents the substrate from binding to this site.
active site
The simplest type of reversible inhibition in which the inhibitor has a similar structure to the substrate is...
competitive inhibition
To inhibit PABA production, _______ are used.
sulfa drugs
The reasons for irreversible inhibition are that...
1. the inhibitor binds so strongly to the enzyme that it does not separate 2. the inhibitor changes important amino acids in the enzyme so that it may no longer function
________ inhibits cysteine by oxidizing S--H groups and converting cysteine to the amino acid, cystine.
Over _______ enzymes have been discovered and named.
There are ___ categories of enzyme based on the reactions they catalyze.
Enzymes are often named after _____, but are sometimes named after ________.
the substrate it acts on, the reaction it catalyzes
The enzyme which bonds subunits of DNA (nucleotides) to form DNA polymer is...
DNA polymerase
What does FAD stand for?
flavin adenine dinucleotide
NAD is a _______ synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.
coenzyme, nyacin, hydrogen atoms (protons and electrons)
FAD is a _______ synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.
coenzyme, riboflavin, hydrogen atoms
Coenzyme A is synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.
pantothenic acid, acetyl groups (2-carbon molecules)
Thiamine pyrophosphate is synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.
thiamine, aldehydes
Pyridoxal phosphate is synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.
pyridoxine, amino group
Tetrahydrofolic acid is synthesized from _____ which transfers __________.
folic acid, 1-carbon atom
The collective biochemical reactions which take place within a cell is...
Any compound produced in metabolism is a...
To survive, microorganisms must...
Multiplication requires synthesis of...
chromosomes, ribosomes, and cell walls
Reactions involved int he synthesis of cell components are...
anabolic reactions
The collective anabolic reactions in a cell are known as...
Biochemical reactions carried out to gain energy are...
catabolic reactions
The collective catabolic reactions in a cell are known as...
Catabolic reactions are ______ reactions.
Degradative reactions yield...
Anabolic and catabolic reactions are coupled to one another and occur...
Yeast degrades glucose to ___________ and produces more yeast cells using these reactions
waste products (ethanol and CO2)
Waste products of catabolism (or degradation) of glucose include...
ethanol and CO2, ATP, reducing power, precursor molecules
What does ATP stand for?
adenosine triphosphate
The storage form of energy in a cell is...
Reducing power...
consists of hydrogen (H) atoms
The starting molecules from which subunits of macromolecules are synthesized are...
precursor molecules
Anabolic reactions require energy in the form of _____ to proceed.
Biosynthetic reactions often require input of...
reducing power
H atoms are composed of...
an electron (e-) and a proton (H+)
Pyruvic acid is a...
precursor molecule
In one enzyme-catalyzed step, pyruvic acid can be converted to the amino acid...
Nutrients like glucose and foodstuffs contain chemical energy in...
covalent bonds
Covalent bonds are _____________ which are not readily available to work in the cell.
Nutrients must be converted to ____ in order to become a usable form of energy in the cell.
ATP has energy concentrated in ______________ which release a large amount of energy when broken.
2 high-energy
The energy released by breaking the bonds of ATP can be used by the cell in...
biosynthetic (anabolic) reactions
When ATP is broken down, it forms...
ADP and inorganic phosphate
What does ADP stand for?
adenosine diphosphate
Reaction for the breaking down of ATP
ATP <---> ADP + Pi +energy
Rearrangement of atoms in glucose molecules involve a series of enzyme-catalyzed steps where the __________ bonds of glucose are converted to the __________ bonds of ATP
low-energy, high-energy
Rearrangement of atoms in glucose molecules occurs in...
glycolytic pathway, TCA cycle
______ occurs in the glycolytic pathway
What does the TCA cycle stand for?
tricarboxylic acid cycle
High-energy bonds are generated by...
oxidative phosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation
The transfer of electrons through a series of proteins and coenzymes from a high to low energy state is...
oxidative phosphorylation
The transfer of high energy phosphate bonds intact to ADP to form ATP is...
substrate phosphorylation
Coenzymes are important for...
generation of energy, storage of reducing power
Coenzymes that are important for the catabolism of glucose...
participate in the formation of ATP by the process of oxidative phosphorylation and store reducing power in the form of hydrogen (H) atoms
ATP is formed from glucose by the process of...
oxidative phosphorylation
Two enzymes which are important to the catabolism of glucose are...
NADP has an extra
Reducing power is produced and stored in _____ after the removal of ________ from copounds in the pathways of glucose degradation.
NAD, H atoms
H atoms are removed by ___________, which removes H atoms from a substrate, with coenzyme ______ bound to it.
dehydrogenase, NAD
The compound which has lost the H atom is...
The H atom binds with the NAD which has been...
The removal of H atoms is...
The gain of H atoms is...
NAD removes a pair of H atoms and becomes reduced to...
The oxidized form of NAD is...
NAD+ (NAD cation)
Equation for the oxidation-reduction reaction of NAD
reduced substrate (H donor) + NAD+ (H acceptor) --> oxidized substrate (oxidized) + NADH (reduced acceptor)
The major source of reducing power is...
______ can transfer ______ to a large number of different molecules in the cell, many of which are a part of biosynthetic processes.
NADH, H atoms
NADH is continuously recycled to _____ to participate in another oxidation-reduction reaction.
NADH must find ________ for the H atoms.
an acceptor
NADH can transfer H atoms to another coenzyme...
FAD is on the pathway to generate....
ATP is generated by a series of ___________ involving the transfer of protons and electrons through the...
oxidation-reduction reactions, electron transport chain
ATP is formed by the process of...
oxidative phosphorylation
The mechanism by which oxidative phosphorylation occurs is...
Chemiosmosis takes place in the ________ or the bacteria.
cytoplasmic membrane
In eukaryotic cells, chemiosmosis takes place in the...
inner membrane of mitochondria
Explain chemiosmosis
H atoms are removed from a substrate through oxidation by a dehydrogenase enzyme associated with the coenzyme NAD. H atoms are then transferred along a chain of carriers (the electron transport chain) to coenzyme FAD then to a small molecule called quinone. Cytochromes, a set of small proteins, are the next carriers in the chain. These proteins can only accept electrons so protons separate fro electrons. Protons are then transferred to the outside of the cytoplasmic membrane and electrons continue along the electron transport chain. There is a higher concentration of protons outside the membrane than there is inside. The high concentration of H+ creates a positive charge on the outside of the membrane and a negative charge inside. The negative charge results from the dissocation of HOH into H+ and OH-. The H+ is then transferred to the outside of the cell while OH- remains inside.
The force created by a differential concentration of protons on either side of the membrane is the...
proton motive force
The high concentration of protons outside the membrane generates a...
potential source of energy
The energy of the proton motive force is used in...
active transport and movement of flagella
The second step of chemiosmosis is...
oxidative phosphorylation
The __________ is converted into the chemical bond energy of ATP.
potential energy of proton gradient
Protons ________ concentration on either side of the cytoplasmic membrane.
The membrane is impermeable to protons, but protons pass to the inside of cell by going through an enzyme, _____________, found in the cytoplasmic membrane
adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)
ATPase converts the energy of the _________ into ATP by the equation...
proton gradient, 3ADP + 3Pi <---> 3ATP
The second mechanism in catabolic pathways is...
substrate phosphorylation
________ converts ADP to ATP by the equation...
Substrate phosphorylation, x~P + ADP--> x + ATP (x is an organic molecule, ~ is a high energy bond)
Aerobic respiration involves ________ as a final hydrogen acceptor.
Concentrations of _____________ in the electron transport chain are low so they must be continuously reoxidized.
coenzymes and proteins
A _________ must be available in the environment to be reduced by the H atoms removed from the substrate being oxidized.
final H acceptor
In air, the compound that acts as the final H acceptor is usually ________ and the product is _____.
The process of degradation in which the final electron acceptor is an inorganic compound is...
If the inorganic compound that acts as the final electron acceptor is oxygen, the process is...
aerobic respiration
If the compound that acts as the final electron acceptor is an inorganic compound other than oxygen, the process is...
anaerobic respiration
The catabolic pathway in which the final H acceptor is an organic compound is...
In fermentation, no _______ is necessary. Organic accepters are by-products of the fermentation pathway and are already in the cell.
external acceptor
The three catabolic pathways which are necessary to generate ATP, NADH, and precursor metabolites are...
glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway
Glucose is converted to pyruvic acid during...
Pyruvic acid is converted to CO2 and H2O during the...
TCA cycle
Glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway all generate...
reducing power and metabolites
Glycolysis and the TCA cycle produce...
Collectively, the catabolic pathways are the...
pathways of central metabolism
Do all cells have three pathways and synthesize precursor molecules?
Growth factors which must be supplied for cells to grow are...
amino acids, purines, pyridimines, vitamins
For every 6-carbon molecule degraded in glycolysis, the energy expended is...
For every 6-carbon molecule degraded in glycolysis, the energy gained is...
For every 6-carbon molecule degraded in glycolysis, the net gain of energy is...
In each mole of glucose, there are ______ calories of bond energy.
IN each mole of pyruvic acid produced in glycolysis, there are __________ calories of bond energy.
In the 4 ATP molecules formed by the degradation of glucose, there are _________ calories of bond energy
The compounds synthesized in the course of glycolysis serve as_____________.
precursor metabolites
The precursor metabolites synthesized in the course of glycolysis include...
3-carbon compounds converted to glycerol (component of lipids) and pyruvic acid (converted to alanine)
Whether the compound that accepts the H atoms from NADH that is degraded is organic or inorganic determines whether it undergoes...
___________ is a precursor metabolite for the synthesis of alanine, but it can be metabolized further in the absence of oxygen. It is converted to a variety of different organic compounds which hydrogen from NADH is transferred to.
pyruvic acid
Products of fermentation:
lactic acid, ethanol, carbon dioxide
In all fermentations, H is transferred to an _____________, and _________ plays no role.
organic compound, gaseous oxygen
During lactic acid fermentation...
2 molecules of NADH reduce the 2 molecules of pyruvic acid formed in glycolysis to form 2 molecules or lactic acid and regenerate NAD
During rest, lactic acid is metabolized in...
the TCA cycle
In alcoholic fermentation from pyruvic acid, pyruvic acid is converted to ___________ then reduced by NADH to__________
acetaldehyde, ethyl alcohol
When different acceptors of hydrogen are used to produce different products are _________, and they results in a variety of products.
mixed fermentations
The products of mixed fermentations depend on environmental factors such as....
what hydrogen acceptors are available
Closely related species of bacteria can be distinguished by their...
fermentation products
The TCA cycle oxidizes ________ to _____________ and traps the energy of ________ in _______.
pyruvic acid, CO2 and H2O, pyruvic acid, ATP
Enzymes in the TCA cycle can use energy if pyruvic acid is oxidized to compounds with...
less bond energy
C6H12O6-->2 pyruvic acid + 2NADH
TCA cycle
2 pyruvic acid + 2NADH --> 6CO2 + H20 + cells
For the TCA cycle, bacteria must have...
all the necessary enzymes; source of final acceptor molecules for hydrogen atoms from NADH
In the TCA cycle, pyruvic acid is converted to...
acetic acid
In the TCA cycle, acetic acid attaches to...
coenzyme A
In the TCA cycle, CoA transfers...
acetic acid molecules
In the TCA cycle, NAD+ picks up hydrogen atoms to form...
In the TCA cycle, Acetyl CoA combines with _______ to form ________.
oxaloacetic acid, citric acid
In the TCA cycle, citric acid is converted to...
alpha ketoglutaric acid
In the TCA cycle, alpha ketoglutaric acid is converted to...
succinic acid
When citric acid is converted to alpha ketoglutaric acid, and alpha ketoglutaric acid is converted to succinic acid __________ is released
CO2 and a pair of hydrogen molecules
In the TCA cycle, after several enzymatic steps, ____ pairs of hydrogen atoms are released and ____________ is formed.
4, oxaloacetic acid
At the end of the TCA cycle when oxaloacetic acid is formed, it will combine with another molecules of _______ which is generated in the...
Acetyl CoA, glycolytic patway
____ carbon atoms exit the TCA cycle in the form of...
2, CO2
___ pairs of hydrogen atoms are removed by NAD+ to form ______ during the TCA cycle.
3, 3 NADH
___ pairs of hydrogen atoms are removed by FAD to form ______ during the TCA cycle.
NADH and FADH either...
reduce compounds in biosynthetic reactions or pass protons and electrons to the electron transport chain
Precursor metabolites in the TCA cycle include...
alpha ketoglutaric acid, oxaloacetic acid
During the TCA cycle, alpha ketoglutaric acid is converted to the amino acid...
glutamic acid
During the TCA cycle, oxaloacetic acid is converted to...
aspartic acid
More energy is gained in __________ than in ___________.
respiration, fermentation
Substrate phosphorylation generates ___% the amount of energy that oxidative phosphorylation generates.
A cell growing under anaerobic conditions must degrade about ___ times more glucose than a cell growing under aerobic condition.s
Under anaerobic conditions, bacteria may use the TCA cycle for... but not...
synthesis of precursor metabolites, generate energy
Facultative anaerobes can utilize inorganic compounds other than oxygen as electron acceptors such as...
nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO4-), and carbon dioxide (CO2)
When facultative anaerobes utilize inorganic compounds other than oxygen, it is known as...
anaerobic respiration
Less ATP is produced during anaerobic respiration because...
not all carriers of the electron transport chain participate in anaerobic respiraton
The pentose phosphate pathway is a....
sugar metabolizing pathway
The intermediates of the pentose phosphate pathway are_____ and they serve as precursor metabolites for...
5-carbon and 4-carbon molecules, nucleic acid and amino acid synthesis
The pentose phosphate pathway is important because...
it provides reducing power required in biosynthesis of cell components which is especially important in organisms that carry out fermentations where reducing power is not available for biosynthetic reactions
Both _______ and _______ can operate in the presence or absence of oxygen and are found in both aerobes and anaerobes.
glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway
The TCA cycle synthesizes the following metabolites...
Acetyl CoA into lipids, oxaloacetic acid to aspartic acid, alpha ketoglutaric acid to glutamic acid, succinyl CoA
The maximum reducing power generated by the TCA cycle is...
End products of the TCA cycle are...
CO2, H2O
The TCA cycle is usually...
aerobic except for anaerobic respiration
The maximum reducing power generated by the pentose phosphate pathway is...
End products of the pentose phosphate pathway are...
The maximum reducing power generated by glycolysis is...
The end products of glycolysis are...
2 pyruvic acid
Bacteria who do not use the glycolytic pathway for degradation of glucose use the...
Entner-Doudoroff pathway
Compounds such as ___________ can be metabolized in place of glucose.
cellulose, sugarcane, molasses, starch
Many bacteria can oxidize a variety of ____________ to gain energy while gaining energy by oxidizing organic compounds.
inorganic compounds
Oxidation of inorganic compounds is...
quite different from anaerobic respiration
Inorganic compounds...
give up electrons which become oxidized and serve as a source of energy
When inorganic compounds are oxidized in bacteria...
oxygen is still the final electron acceptor
__________ are capable of oxidizing inorganic compounds.
In anaerobic respiration.... whereas in the oxidation of inorganic compounds...
inorganic compounds serve as electron accepters and become reduced, the inorganic compounds are oxidized
In aerobic respiration, the inorganic compounds which act as receptors....
take the place of oxygen and generate no energy
Many amino acids are synthesized for the same...
precursor molecule
____ amino acids are synthesized
Amino acids from the glycolytic pathway and the TCA cycle include...
glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine
Amino acids are grouped into families based on...
the material they are synthesized from