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6-9 months

how long after initial infection will adult heartworms be found in the pulmonary artery and be releasing microfilariae?

caudal lung lobes

adult worms destroy the endothelium of the small pulmonary arteries, particularly where?

thickened wall, dilation

what are 2 responses of the pulmonary artery to the worms?

right ventricular concentric hypertrophy

the presence of heartworms can lead to pulmonary hypertension which can cause cor pulmonale, which is what?


bacteria within heartworms that can cause neutrophil chemokinesis and cytokine production

glomerulonephritis, proteinuria

2 condition related to the kidneys that can occur secondary to heartworm infection

split second heart sound

sign of heartworm infection that can be heard while auscultating the heart

1-2 months

heartworm prophylaxis can be stopped how long after the first frost?

1 month

heartworms prophylaxis should be restarted how long before spring and the mosquito season?

L3, L4

diethylcarbamazine (DEC, filaribits) are effective for what 2 larval stages?


can filaribits be used to treat a dog who has heartworm disease?

L3, L4

2 larval stages killed by ivermectin

1-2 years

how long will it take for monthly administration of ivermectin to kill adult heartworms?


milbemycin (interceptor, sentinel) is effective against which larval stage?


moxidectin (ProHeart) is effective against which larval stage?


dogs with signs of parenchymal lung disease can be treated with what prior to starting adulticide treatment?


the heartworm antigen test should be negative how many weeks post-adulticide treatment?


drug of choice for adulticide heartworm therapy

1 months

to cause a graded kill and lessen the number of dead worms at one time when using melarsomine, the two injections can be given with how much time between them?

pulmonary thromboembolism

what is an inevitable consequence os successful adulticide therapy?


the most serious complication of adulticide therapy occur how many weeks after treatment?


how many weeks does an animal need to be cage rested following adulticide therapy?

pulmonary thromboembolism

surgical removal of worms is a good option for dogs who have a high risk of what?


term for heartworm disease when there are adults in the pulmonary arteries but there are no circulating microfilariae

post-caval syndrome

condition where there is a severe worm infection that they back up from the pulmonary arteries into the right atrium and even the caudal vena cava.


post-caval syndrome can result in hepatic congestion which will then cause what condition?

intravascular hemolysis

what condition associated with post-caval syndrome is due to mechanical shearing in the blood vessels?

eosinophilic pneumonitis

condition in dogs caused by the immunological reaction to the microfilariae in the lungs


what drug should be given to treat eosinophilic pneumonitis because it works rapidly?

pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis

rare condition due to heart worms where there are nodules containing mononuclear cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils and proliferation of bronchial smooth muscle occurs in the lungs

prednisolone, azathioprine

2 drugs used to treat pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis

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