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Canine Heartworm

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6-9 months
how long after initial infection will adult heartworms be found in the pulmonary artery and be releasing microfilariae?
caudal lung lobes
adult worms destroy the endothelium of the small pulmonary arteries, particularly where?
thickened wall, dilation
what are 2 responses of the pulmonary artery to the worms?
right ventricular concentric hypertrophy
the presence of heartworms can lead to pulmonary hypertension which can cause cor pulmonale, which is what?
wolbachia
bacteria within heartworms that can cause neutrophil chemokinesis and cytokine production
glomerulonephritis, proteinuria
2 condition related to the kidneys that can occur secondary to heartworm infection
split second heart sound
sign of heartworm infection that can be heard while auscultating the heart
1-2 months
heartworm prophylaxis can be stopped how long after the first frost?
1 month
heartworms prophylaxis should be restarted how long before spring and the mosquito season?
L3, L4
diethylcarbamazine (DEC, filaribits) are effective for what 2 larval stages?
no
can filaribits be used to treat a dog who has heartworm disease?
L3, L4
2 larval stages killed by ivermectin
1-2 years
how long will it take for monthly administration of ivermectin to kill adult heartworms?
L4
milbemycin (interceptor, sentinel) is effective against which larval stage?
L3
moxidectin (ProHeart) is effective against which larval stage?
prednisolone
dogs with signs of parenchymal lung disease can be treated with what prior to starting adulticide treatment?
16
the heartworm antigen test should be negative how many weeks post-adulticide treatment?
melarsomine
drug of choice for adulticide heartworm therapy
1 months
to cause a graded kill and lessen the number of dead worms at one time when using melarsomine, the two injections can be given with how much time between them?
pulmonary thromboembolism
what is an inevitable consequence os successful adulticide therapy?
2-3
the most serious complication of adulticide therapy occur how many weeks after treatment?
4-6
how many weeks does an animal need to be cage rested following adulticide therapy?
pulmonary thromboembolism
surgical removal of worms is a good option for dogs who have a high risk of what?
occult
term for heartworm disease when there are adults in the pulmonary arteries but there are no circulating microfilariae
post-caval syndrome
condition where there is a severe worm infection that they back up from the pulmonary arteries into the right atrium and even the caudal vena cava.
ascites
post-caval syndrome can result in hepatic congestion which will then cause what condition?
intravascular hemolysis
what condition associated with post-caval syndrome is due to mechanical shearing in the blood vessels?
eosinophilic pneumonitis
condition in dogs caused by the immunological reaction to the microfilariae in the lungs
prednisolone
what drug should be given to treat eosinophilic pneumonitis because it works rapidly?
pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis
rare condition due to heart worms where there are nodules containing mononuclear cells, neutrophils, and eosinophils and proliferation of bronchial smooth muscle occurs in the lungs
prednisolone, azathioprine
2 drugs used to treat pulmonary eosinophilic granulomatosis