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Terms in this set (18)
skeletal muscles / voluntary muscles
smooth muscles / visceral muscles
state the three types of muscles
skeletal muscles have are long and cylindrical shaped cells.
skeletal muscles are found in association with the skeleton
skeletal muscles are striated
skeletal muscles have numerous mitochondria
skeletal muscles are multinucleate
skeletal muscles are innervated by the voluntary part of the nervous system. they are neurogenic.
skeletal muscles perform voluntary movements of the body.
state the characteristics of the skeletal muscles
smooth muscle tissue is found on the walls of visceral organs, such as the elementary canal and the bladder.
smooth muscle cells are spindle shaped, and bound together by connective tissue.
smooth muscle cells are mononucleate.
smooth muscle cells have few mitochondria.
smooth muscle cells are non striated
smooth muscles are innervated by the involuntary part of the nervous system, hence are neurogenic.
smooth muscles perform involuntary movements.
state the characteristics of smooth muscle tissue
cardiac muscles are found in the heart
cardiac muscle cells are branched cells that are with intercalated discs
cardiac muscles are striated
cardiac muscles have numerous mitochondria
cardiac muscles are mononucleate
cardiac muscles are independent of the nervous system, hence are cryogenic
cardiac muscles do not fatigue
cardiac muscles are involuntary muscles.
state the characteristics of cardiac muscles
what to consider as characteristics of muscles
During movement of the forearm, the bicep acts as the flexor muscle, while the tricep acts as the extensor muscles. the origin of the bicep is the scapula, and it passes over the upper arm and is inserted at the top of the radius. when the bicep contracts, it pulls on the radius , causing the forearm to bend. the tricep originates near the top of the ulna, passes under the upper arm and inserts both on the scapula and the top of the humerus. when it contracts, it pulls on the ulna and hence straightens it out. the bicep and tricep function antagonistically, as when one contracts the other relaxes.
describe the movement of the forearm
allow for electrical conduction between cells
significance of intercalated discs
(all)presence of myosin and actin in the myofibrils, that are contractile in nature hence allowing the muscles to move
(all)presence of numerous mitochondria to provide energy to the cells for movement
they have slow, involuntary contractions which are essential in areas such as small intestines to allow max absorption of nuclei
they are innervated by the involuntary part of the brain, hence enabling involuntary Mvt in places such as the small intestine, for digestion
adaptations of smootb muscles
thet have numerous blood capillaries running through them providing them with nutrients and o2
connected to the coronary arteries which supply with nutrients
have specialised pace maker cells which allow them to generate their own nerve impulses, hence myogenic
intercalated discs which allow for conductivity between cells
adaptations of cardiac
innervated by voluntary part
connected to bones by tendons, hence allowing mvt of bones and their associated structures
numerous mitochondria to supply cells with energy for motion
presence of myosin and actin in their myofibrils, which are contractile in nature hence allowing for movement of muscles
propulsion is brought about by side to side lashing of the skeletal structure, which has a broad causal fin on the anterior end. mvt of the skeletal structure controlled by the myotome muscles, which arise from the numerous transverse processes of the vertebral bones.
these muscles contract and relax alternately, causing the bending and straightening of the skeleton, allowing the causal fin to lash in the water side to side, hence propulsion
support and buoyancy are achieved by use of the fins and the presence of the swim bladder.
there are two types of fins, paired and unpaired fins.
the paired fins, pelvic and pectoral assist in maintaining balance, changing direction and braking.
the unpaired fins, have wo types. the dorsal and anal are (median fins) and then theres the caudal fin.
the median fins aid in preventing Rolling and lateral deflection of the body. (yawing)
the causal fin aids in propulsion and steering.
movement in fish
what does the causal fin aid in
what does the anal and dorsal fins aid in
what do the paired fins aid in
what are the dorsal and anal fins called together
what are the median and causal fins called together
what are the pelvic and pectoral muscles called together
it controls the depth at which the fish swims, by regulating the amount of air in it.
significance of the swim bladder
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