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Causes of earthquakes
eruption of a volcano, collapse of cavern, impact of meteor, for most it is the strain that builds up along faults
theory that describes when the plates deform through stress, and then move suddenly and snap back to original form, but moved relative to each other.
waves that squeeze and stretch rock as they pass through Earth- can travel through any material
shear waves that cause material to move at right angles to the direction in which the waves are traveling, cannot travel through liquids or gases
the rate at which body waves move depends on the type and ____________ of the material through which they travel
the velocity of body waves is ________ when they are traveling through rigid and dense material
travel more slowly than the other type of surface waves, cause particles of material to move in elliptical patterns, ripples
instrument that detects and records waves produced by earthquakes that may have originated hundreds of kilometers away
shows the relationship between P-wave and S-wave arrival time and the distance from an earthquake's epicenter
measures intensity of ground movements, each whole number increase is a 31-fold increase in energy
a measure that more accurately indicates the total energy involved in an earthquake, takes everything into consideration
a series of smaller earthquakes that occur after a major earthquake originating close to the focus of the larger one
earthquake that occurred along the Mississippi River in Missouri, it was not along a fault, sediments in Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri Rivers cause faults
areas where a fault has not moved for a long period of time, places where stress is building up and an earthquake is expected to happen
during plate collisions, stress can cause rock layers along continental margins to crumple into __________.
reverse faults where the fault plane dips 45 degrees or less from the horizontal, compressive stresses can move rock great distances
rocks on opposite sides of the fault plane move horizontally past each other; San Andreas fault
joints appear on the surface of a rock outcrop as a line, these lines can appear in parallel groups called ________ _____.
when two plates carrying continental crust collide, rocks can fold and crumple into ______ __________
nearly circular folded mountain, individual, isolated structures that tend to occur in areas of essentially flat-lying sedimentary rocks, bent upward in a dome shape as a result of uplifting forces
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