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APUSH UNIT 12 TEST STUDY GUIDE
Terms in this set (62)
What was the reason and result for FDR's withdrawal from the London Economic Conference?
He scolded the conference for attempting to stabilize currencies. He wanted to pursue his gold-juggling and other inflationary policies at home as a means of stimulating America recovery.
Why did FDR recognize the USSR in 1933?
He was motivated in part by the hope for trade with Soviet Russia, as well as by the desire to bolster the Soviet Union as a friendly counterweight to the possible threat of German power in Europe and Japanese power in Asia.
Filipino Independence was finally authorized by the USA for what underlying reason?
They wanted freedom FROM the Philippines. With a selfish eye to their own welfare, and with apparent disregard for the political situation in Asia, they proposed to leave the Philippines to their fate, while imposing upon the Filipinos economic terms so ungenerous as to threaten the islands with economic prostration.
How did FDR's Good Neighbor Policy reflect America's economic and foreign policy situation in the 1930s?
It suggested that the U.S. was giving up its ambition to be a world power and would content itself instead with being merely a regional power, its interests and activities confined exclusively to the Western Hemisphere.
What were and how did FDR's Reciprocal Trade Agreements attempt to improve America's economy?
It was aimed at both relief and recovery. It reversed the traditional high-protective-tariff policy. It paved the way for the American-led free-trade international economic system that took shape after WWII, a period that witnessed the most robust growth in the history of international trade.
How and why did the American population respond to the aggressive actions of fascist leaders in the 1930s?
Though disapproving of the dictators, Americans still believed that their encircling seas conferred a kind of mystic immunity. Also, Americans had no real appreciation of the revolutionary forces being harnessed by the dictators. The "have-not" powers were out to become "have" powers. Americans were not so much afraid that totalitarianism aggression would cause trouble as they were fearful that they might be drawn into it.
What and how the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 were supposed to keep the United States isolated?
They stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war, certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, sell or transport munitions to a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent.
Why were the following trade policies enacted by the US during the 1930s: Cash and Carry and Lend-Lease?
Cash and Carry: European democracies would have to transport the munitions (war materials) in their own ships, after paying for them in cash. America would thus avoid loans, war debts, and the torpedoing of American arms-carriers.
Lend-Lease: It was "An Act Further to Promote the Defense of the U.S." and keep the nation out of the war rather than drag it in. "send guns, not sons" It would send a limitless supply of arms to the victims of aggression, who in turn would finish the job and keep the war on their side of the Atlantic.
Why was FDR's Quarantine Speech so controversial?
The speech triggered a cyclone of protest from isolationists and other foes of involvement; they feared that a moral quarantine would lead to a shooting quarantine.
What was the Munich Pact and why did it fail to appease Hitler?
It was signed in 1938 between Great Britain, Gemany, and France that gave part of Czechoslovakia--Sudetenland--to Germany. The Allies hoped that the concessions at the conference table would slake Hitler's thirst for power and bring "peace in our time."
What was the significance and impact of the Soviet-Nazi Nonaggression Pact?
It meant that the Nazi German leader now had a green light to make war on Poland and the Western democracies, without fearing a stab in the back from the Soviet Union--his Communist arch-foe. Hitler now demanded from neighboring Poland a return of the areas wrested from Germany after WWI.
American reaction to Nazi aggression toward Jews was slow and ineffective due to what reasons?
Why did the American neutrality effectively end and the nation accept a policy of "all aid short of war" with the falling of France in 1940?
The Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies: to interventionists it could appeal for direct to the British by such slogans as "Britain is fighting our fight." To isolationists it could appeal for assistance to the democracies by "All Methods Short of War" so that the terrible conflict would be kept in faraway Europe.
What was the American Destroyer Deal about?
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. They lended 50. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
What was FDR's justification for a third term?
He avowed that in so grave a crisis he owed his experienced hand to the service of his country and humanity.
Japanese aggression should not be considered too surprising in 1941 for what reasons?
Japan had been a military ally of Nazi Germany--America's shooting foe in the North Atlantic since September 1940
Considering the last question why was Pearl Harbor such a shock then?
The blowup did not come from the Atlantic (Europe). Also, Roosevelt expected the blow from Japan to fall on British Malaya or on the Philippines. No one in high authority in Washington seems to have believed that the Japanese were either strong enough or foolhardy enough to strike Hawaii.
Understand the significance of Allied strategy such as "Germany first" and the demand for "unconditional surrender".
1. Despite the fact that Japan had initiated war hostilities, the US agreed with Britain that it was essential to focus on defeating Germany. Roosevelt and Churchill agreed that if the US turned toward Japan, Germany might defeat both the USSR and Great Britain and emerge as the unconquerable power in Europe. But if the US joined with Britain and the USSR to defeat Germany, Japan could be defeated by the Allies later.
2. Idea that enemy nations would have to accept whatever peace terms the Allies dictated.
The biggest homefront issue once war was declared was for the nation to do what?
War Production Board
It orchestrated the production of military orders, factories producing some $100 billion worth of weaponry in 1942 alone; government agency that decided which companies would make war materials and how to distribute raw materials
Office of Price Administration
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
War Labor Board
settled disputes between business and labor without strikes so that production would not be interrupted and morale would be high
Fair Employment Practices Commission
FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.
What was the biggest reason women left he labor force after WW II?
Many of them were forced out of their jobs by employers and unions eager to reemploy returning servicemen. But half of them told census takers that they quit their jobs voluntarily because of family obligations.
What were the myths and reality of Japanese Internment?
Reality: Some 110,000 Japanese Americans were herded together in concentration camps because the U.S. govt. feared they might act as saboterus for Japan in case of Invasion. The camps deprived these uprooted Americans of dignity and basic rights.
Myth: they were not spies
How were the following related to the role of African Americans in WW II? - Double V
The war helped to embolden blacks in their long struggle for equality. Double V--Victory over the dictators abroad and over racism at home. Membership in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People shot up almost to the half-million mark.
serve in segregated units
form the Congress of Racial Equality
This new militant organization, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded in 1942.
What became the center of the African American community by the end of WW II?
What was the impact of the War effort on the national debt?
How did the US govt. raise the majority of the money to pay for the war effort?
What was the turning point in the war against Japan?
What costly mistake was made by the Japanese in the Pacific War?
What was the American strategy of "island hopping"?
What was the turning point in the war on the Eastern Front in Europe?
Why did Stalin ask for a second front so often and early in the war and why did England and the US not provide it until 1944?
What was the impact of the British and American's opening a second front in Italy instead of France in 1943?
What was discussed/decided at the Potsdam conference?
Why did the US spend so much money on the Manhattan Project?
What modification of the "unconditional surrender" policy was accepted by the US in 1945?
What did Americans fear would return after the end of WW II?
What was the GI Bill and why was it created?
What was the Tart-Hartley Act and why was it created?
Who most benefitted from the post war prosperity of World War II?
How and why did the post-war economic boom lead to a development of more homeowners?
How was the prosperity of the post war years related to the expansion of military spending?
What region of the country experienced economic and population expansion during and following the war?
What were some of the reasons for the development of suburbia following the war?
What was the impact of suburbia on the established urban centers of America?
What was the policy of containment?
Origins of the Cold War came from disagreements between the US and USSR over the post war future of what region of the world?
The Truman Doctrine was established to contain communism how and where?
How did NATO impact the Cold War?
How did the Marshall Plan impact the Cold War?
Truman's recognition of Israel had what impact on American involvement in the Middle East?
What actions did Truman take to halt the spread of communism in the USA?
What was NSC-68 and how did it impact American foreign policy?
Why did Truman dismiss Gen. MacArthur from his command of American forces in the Korean War?
Understand the significance and lasting impact of Joseph McCarthy to the Red Scare of the post-war US.
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