Terms in this set (114)
When a fertile women engage in unprotected vaginal intercourse, what is the likelihood that she will become pregnant?
Immediately after fertilization, the fertilized ovum is referred to as a(n)
The hollow ball of embryonic cells that enters the uterus from the Fallopian tube and eventually implants is referred to as the
What is an early sign of pregnancy?
Pregnancy tests measure for
...human chorionic gonadotropin
What is the success rate of the Shettles and Rorvik's method of gender selection, which uses timing and vaginal pH-level adjustments to favor either X or Y sperm?
...For males, 50 to 70%; for females 50 to 90%
How long must a young couple (under age 35) have been trying to conceive on a regular basis, without success, before the possibility of infertility is considered?
Considering that sometimes the cause of infertility for a couple cannot be determined, how often are the causes of infertility traced back to the male or female partner?
...For males, one-third of the time; for females, one-third of the time
A procedure in which a woman's ova are removed from her body, fertilized with a sperm in a laboratory, and then surgically implanted back into her uterus is known as
in vitro fertilization
The term "test-tube baby" refers to any zygote created
by mixing sperm and egg outside a woman's body
The first trimester includes the first
...13 weeks of pregnancy
During which trimester is the fetal heart formed and functional?
During the second trimester, a waxy substance covers the fetus' body, which is known as
What are Braxton-Hicks contractions?
...Contractions that are intermittent
How much should a pregnant women increase her caloric intake by during the second trimester of pregnancy?
A condition associated with heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy, producing an infant with irreversible physical and mental disabilities, is known as
fetal alcohol syndrome
Orgasm during pregnancy may cause
painful uterine contractions
When the zygote implants outside of the uterus this is referred to as a(n)
Another term for miscarriage is
What is a symptom of toxemia, a potentially dangerous condition that occurs in 6 to 7% of pregnant women?
increased blood pressure
If toxemia is allowed to progress, it may result in convulsions, coma, and, sometimes, death. What is this advanced stage of toxemia called?
Worldwide, approximately what percent of babies are born in the home?
What is the most common method of birth induction?
What is thought to be the most ineffective and dangerous position for the mother to be in during labor?
...semi-reclined with feet in stirrups
A few weeks before delivery, the fetus usually moves into a "head-down" position in the uterus. This is referred to as
A cut made with surgical scissors to avoid tearing of the perineum is called
The term "afterbirth" refers to the
What is considered the cutoff for a premature birth?
...Before 37 weeks of pregnanc
The most common chromosomal abnormality appears on the 21st chromosome and is known as
According to the research, what is the rate of postpartum depression in women?
One in 8 women experiences postpartum depression
Cervical mucus thickens during ovulation to provide more support for the ova
Implantation occurs within minutes of fertilization
What causes morning sickness?
Increased estrogen and progesterone
The most common early sign of pregnancy is a
Which of the following can cause a false positive pregnancy test, indicating the woman is pregnant when she is actually not pregnancy?
High doses of medication, including antidepressants and aspirin
Shettles and Rorvik's method of gender selection depends on what observation about sperm?
Male sperm swim faster in an alkaline environment and female sperm swim faster in an acidic environment.
Shettles and Rorvik's method of gender selection is more successful in producing girls than boys.
The definition of infertility depends in part on the woman's age.
Women are more likely to discuss their infertility than are men.
Which of the following is a cause of infertility among women?
Sexually transmitted infections
Although older women who get pregnant are more likely to take better care of themselves and eat healthier than younger women, there are increased risks to the pregnancies, including spontaneous abortion, first-trimester bleeding, low birth weight, increased labor time and rate of cesarean section, and
The major risk with the use of fertility drugs is the development of
ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome
Because they contain a higher percentage of water, it is more difficult to successfully freeze and thaw ova than sperm
Which technique is particularly helpful if a couple experiences ova that are resistant to fertilization?
Intracellular sperm injection
The membrane that grows over the embryo during the first trimester is called the
The structure that attaches to the uterine wall and supplies nutrients to the fetus, aids in respiratory and excretory functions, and secretes necessary hormones is the
During the initial weeks of pregnancy, the mother's body adjusts to elevated levels of estrogen and
Reflexes develop during the second trimester.
The expectant mother feels the baby move as early as 16 weeks gestation
Nervous system development is complete by the end of the ninth month of pregnancy
Intermittent contractions that become stronger during the eighth and ninth months of pregnancy are called
It is safe to have one alcoholic drink per day during pregnancy.
Why do women frequently take iron supplements during pregnancy?
Iron concentration is diluted by the increase in blood volume
Sex is unsafe during pregnancy, regardless of how healthy the mother and baby seem.
A pregnancy in which the zygote implants in a Fallopian tube is called a tubal or
Smoking increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy
Approximately what percentage of pregnancies end with miscarriage?
Fetal chromosomal abnormalities are a significant cause of miscarriage.
Research indicates that pre-eclampsia defective implantation or problems with the
For low-risk pregnancies, home birth has been found to be as safe as a hospital delivery.
Labor induction is one of the fastest growing medical procedures in the United States
In the United States, it is illegal to induce labor for non-medical reasons such as the convenience of the health care provider or mother.
Some health care providers believe that the typical position for women giving birth in Westernized medical settings (semi-recline with feet in stirrups) is preferred because it is easier for doctors; however, it is, in fact, less efficient and even dangerous for the mother and baby.
Which of the following is the typical order of events during childbirth?
Engagement, cervical effacement, and cervical dilation
The episiotomy is a routine, widely-accepted procedure and is necessary for safe childbirth.
Which criteria are included in the Apgar score?
Activity, pulse, grimace, appearance, and respiration
The third stage of labor includes expulsion of the
When a full-term infant has its buttocks and feet against the cervix, it is in the
Any birth that takes place prior to the 40th week of pregnancy is considered premature.
The condition in which the placenta blocks the cervix is
How often do birth defects occur?
1 in 33
The most common chromosomal abnormality is
Because older women are at greater risk for chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, genetic tests are only recommended for women older than 45.
How common is postpartum depression?
One in 8 women experience postpartum depression
By six weeks postpartum, the majority of women return to their original levels of sexual desire and excitement.
Our bodies are biologically programmed in many ways to help pregnancy occur. For example, in females
sexual desire increases during ovulation
What happens to the semen immediately following ejaculation into the vagina to facilitate conception?
Semen thickens so that it will remain in the vagina.
What is true of the process of fertilization?
The ovum releases chemical signals that indicate its location to the sperm
What must occur so that the developing embryo will implant in the uterus?
Appropriate levels of estrogen and progesterone must reach the endometrium.
Why is it thought that some pregnant women develop aversions to meat during pregnancy?
Meat is a potential source of bacteria
False-positive pregnancy tests can occur because of
Amelia and her husband Rick are trying to conceive their fourth child. They already have three boys and would love to have a girl. After referring to the Shettles and Rorvik's method of gender selection, what would you advise?
Have intercourse 2 to 3 days before ovulation; in addition, Amelia should douche with vinegar and water.
What is true of couples who are experiencing infertility?
Only recently has the man been considered a potential source of a couple's infertility problem.
Studies have found that male infertility can be caused by exposure to
What is a common cause of infertility in women?
Joanne, who is having difficulty conceiving, is contemplating the use of fertility drugs. What should she first consider?
There is an increased risk of birth defects when fertility drugs are used
In contrast to the cryopreservation of sperm or embryos, why is ova cryopreservation currently not available?
Ova have a higher water content than do sperm or embryos, increasing the likelihood of chromosomal damage
In vitro fertilization entails
fertilization in a petri dish followed by implantation into the uterus
What changes occur in the mother during the first trimester of pregnancy?
Growth of the thyroid gland
For the developing embryo, what is the purpose of amniotic fluid?
It provides protective cushioning
What is a key milestone of fetal development during the second trimester?
Development of reflexes
Which symptom is a woman in her second trimester of pregnancy most likely to experience?
During the third trimester, a thin, yellowish liquid may be secreted from the nipples as the breasts prepare to produce milk for breast-feeding. What is this liquid called?
In the U.S., how has the role of the father during labor and delivery changed over the years?
In the past, fathers stayed in the waiting room until after the birth of the baby
Why is iron supplementation required during pregnancy?
To offset diluted iron levels caused by increased maternal blood volume
What is a potential long-term consequence for a child whose mother smoked during pregnancy?
Although cunnilingus can be safely performed during pregnancy, why should care be taken to never blow air into the vagina of a pregnant woman?
It could cause an air embolism
Where do most ectopic pregnancies occur?
What is the risk associated with an ectopic pregnancy?
In a significant number of miscarriages, there is
some chromosomal abnormality
Jeanette, who is seven months pregnant, has severely swollen ankles; at her last doctor's visit her blood pressure was elevated and there was protein in her urine. She likely has
What pregnancy related condition is characterized by convulsions, coma, and sometimes even death?
How safe are home births for low-risk pregnancies?
They are just as safe as hospital births.
What medical condition will prompt doctors to induce labor?
A large baby
During labor, what position allows a woman's pelvis and cervix to be at its widest?
During the first stage of childbirth, what is meant by "engagement?"
Fetus moves into "head down" position
What is true of the second stage of childbirth?
What happens during the third stage of childbirth?
The placenta is expelled
What is the breech position?
The fetus's feet and buttocks are against the cervix
Twenty-eight percent of infant deaths worldwide are caused by
What is a common reason for undergoing a C-section?
The maternal-serum alpha-fetoprotein screening tests for
neural tube defects
A woman who neglects her baby after birth may be suffering from
After delivering a baby, why should a woman wait several weeks before having sex?
To avoid infection