BBL 1 - Amino Acids

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Amino acid structure
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Terms in this set (28)
Asp and GluAcidic amino acids with ionized/charged R group carboxylic acidsLys, Arg, HisBasic amino acids with positively charged R group terminal aminesSer, Thr, Cys, Tyr, Asn and GlnPolar R groupsIle, Pro, Trp, Val, Leu, Ala, Gly, Met, PheNon-polar R groupsIle, Leu, ValBranched chained amino acid R groupsPhe, Trp, TyrAromatic R groupsMet-Start signal for the translation of mRNA into protein (first amino acid of the protein being formed on the ribosome) -Adenylylated to form AdoMet from methionine and ATPAdoMetMethyl donor to all macromolecules (nucleic acids, proteins, lipid) through methylating enzyme -Pathways produce cysteine through the transsulfuration pathway and polyamines through another branchOrnithineIntermediate of the Urea Cycle that enters the mitochondria and condenses with carbamyl phosphate to form citrullineCitrullineExits the mitochondria to condense with aspartate to form argininosuccinate, that is cleaved to form arginineArginineCleaved into urea and ornithineDesmosineAmino acid found in the elastin proteinSelenocysteine formationSelenide adds the seleno group to a seryl-tRNA, forming selnocystyl-tRNA, that is then added to growing peptide chain13Out of 20 amino acids ____ do not ionize (no pKR for the R groups)Non-polar amino acidsBond and exclude water from the interior of the protein - on the exterior surface of transmembrane proteins so that they can interact with non-polar fatty acids of the membrane phospholipids, anchoring the proteins into the membranePolar amino acids-Found on the surface of the globular proteins so that they can interact with water (makes the proteins soluble) -In the active site of enzymes, binding site of receptorsR groupDictates the chemical properties of each amino individual acidSource of amino acid precursors-Glycolysis -Pentose phosphate pathway -TCA cycle