Anthropology Chapter 12

Terms in this set (15)

A range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, language, and territory. Typically, the tribe has an economy based on some form of crop cultivation or herding, and therefore yields more food than the food-foraging band, allowing a larger membership. Each tribe consists of one or more self-supporting and self-governing local communities that may form alliances with others for various purposes. Political organization is informal and temporary, and based on cooperation when needed. The organizing unit and seat of political authority is the clan, compromised of people who consider themselves descended from a common ancestor. Within the clan, elders or headmen regulate members' affairs and represent their clan in interaction with other clans. Clan organization facilitates joint sanction with members of related communities when necessary. Leadership among tribes is relatively informal. Example: The Kapauku of Western New Guinea have tribal leadership through the Big Man, or tonowi. The Big Man combines a small amount of interest in his tribe's welfare with a great deal of calculation for his own personal gain. The tonowi acquires political power through loaning money and hiring young male apprentices who receive business training, food, and shelter. The tonowi's wealth comes from his success at breeding pigs. Age sets, age grades, and common-interest assocations link members from different lineages and clans. Example: The Tiriki of East Africa organize through age sets and age grades, while the Chyenne organized through common-interest associations.