A relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits a specific territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically independent. The band is fundamentally a kin group, composed of related men and/or women with their spouses and unmarried children. The band is egalitarian and small, with no real need for formal, centralized political systems. Conflicts are usually settled informally, and negotiation seeks to find a fair solution for all parties. Those who are unhappy have the simple option of leaving the band. Consensus, rather than a simply majority, is sought when making decisions. Individuals become leaders because of their abilities and have no real power to force people to abide by their decisions. Example: The Ju/'hoansi Bushmen of Kalahari Desert are composed of a group of families that live together, linked through kinship to one another and to the headman. The head, or owner, represents the rights of members to the land and resources. The head coordinates migration when resources are inadequate for subsistence. Through gossip, rather than open confrontation, people reinforce cultural standards, punish those who violate the standards, and level the status of all members. A range of kin-ordered groups that are politically integrated by some unifying factor and whose members share a common ancestry, identity, culture, language, and territory. Typically, the tribe has an economy based on some form of crop cultivation or herding, and therefore yields more food than the food-foraging band, allowing a larger membership. Each tribe consists of one or more self-supporting and self-governing local communities that may form alliances with others for various purposes. Political organization is informal and temporary, and based on cooperation when needed. The organizing unit and seat of political authority is the clan, compromised of people who consider themselves descended from a common ancestor. Within the clan, elders or headmen regulate members' affairs and represent their clan in interaction with other clans. Clan organization facilitates joint sanction with members of related communities when necessary. Leadership among tribes is relatively informal. Example: The Kapauku of Western New Guinea have tribal leadership through the Big Man, or tonowi. The Big Man combines a small amount of interest in his tribe's welfare with a great deal of calculation for his own personal gain. The tonowi acquires political power through loaning money and hiring young male apprentices who receive business training, food, and shelter. The tonowi's wealth comes from his success at breeding pigs. Age sets, age grades, and common-interest assocations link members from different lineages and clans. Example: The Tiriki of East Africa organize through age sets and age grades, while the Chyenne organized through common-interest associations. A centralized polity involving large numbers of people within a defined territory who are divided into social classes and organized and directed by a formal government that has the capacity and authority to make laws, and use force to defend the social order. The large population requires increased food production and wider distribution networks, leading to a transformation of landscape. State institutions allow numerous, diverse groups to function together as in integrated whole. Though ideology says that a state is permanent and stable, they have not been so through the long term. An important aspect of the state is its delegation of authority to maintain order consistently and predictably within and outside its borders. Example: Swaziland is one of the world' few nation-states, with the traditional authority system of a dual monarchy, a hereditary aristocracy, elaborate kinship rituals, and statewide age sets. The people of the staten made their opinions known to the figureheads, the king and his mother, through two councils. The subjects could transfer their allegiance to a more favored chief should the heads develop autocratic tendencies.