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GIT - Symptomatology and others
Terms in this set (76)
Normal bowel movement frequency :
3x/day to 1x/3days
osmotic vs secretory diarrhoea
=> Drug adverse effects
=> Motility disorders
=> Intestinal inflamm (infxn /IBD)
Diarrhoea associated w/
-Stool => greasy, pale, bulky float & difficult to flush away.
Rome III criteria for IBS
What do we mean by
Fluctuating abdominal distension that develops during the day and resolves
Usually occurs in? IBS
Mention 2 causes of
2-Drugs (esp antibiotics).
occurs particularly in?
Anismus/dyschezia is :_________?
Difficulty emptying the rectum despite prolonged straining
The most common causes of
refers to :
The sensation of needing to defecte although the rectum is empty.
Vascular lesions of stomach that may cause UGiB?
-Gastric antral vascular ectasia
Gastric antral vascular ectasia
Associated with chronic blood loss
Most common causes of
in the US are?
Most common causes of
in the US are?
-Angiodysplasia of the colon
The most common cause of rectal bleeding is?
Haematemesis refers to :
vomiting up blood
Melaena refers to :
the production of dark sticky faeces containing partly digested blood, as a result of internal bleeding or the swallowing of blood.
Causes of rectal bleeding include?
Benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Causes of :
-Drugs / primary biliary cirrhosis
-Gallstones / cholangioca /pancreatic ca
obstructive jaundice ;suggests?
MALIGNANT biliary obstruction
Think of > cholangioca or ca of the head of the pancreas
is predominantly associated with?
Sx in :
-Ulcer like dyspepsia?
-Dysmotility like dyspepsia?
-Epigastric pain relieved by food /antacids
-Nausea, belching, bloating & premature satiety
Dyspepsia that is worse w/ an
eased by eating
is the classical sx of?
The most common cause of intestinal obstruction is?
Which one of the following are common causes of
A. Hypertension, gallstones, diabetes mellitus
B. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertriglyceridemia, medications
C. Ethanol abuse, gallstones, pregnancy
D. Hereditary predisposition, obesity, gallstones
E. Obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia
Which of the following interventions
has not been' shown to
decrease pain* in chronic
A. Opioids such as morphine
C. Ethanol cessation
D. Avoidance of fatty meals
E. Smoking cessation
When does serum amylase rise in acute pancreatitis?
a. 6 hours
b. 24 hours
c. 72 hours
d. 3 - 5 days
Serum amylase is used as a screening test for acute pancreatitis.
Normal serum amylase =
60 to 180
more than 65 U/L
should make one @ suspect acute pancreatitis.
A level more than @ 130 U/L makes acute pancreatitis more likely.
More than 3 times normal
is diagnostic of pancreatitis if
gut perforation or infarction
can be excluded
Severity of acute pancreatitis correlate with levels of all of the following except
What are the
3 cardinal manifestations
of GIT dz's?
-Abd pain (
-Vomiting +/- Nausea
-Altered bowel habits
Sx associated w/
-Caecum /sigmoid colon?
-Severe acute abd pain & Nausea
-Sudden abd pain associated w/
acute intestinal obstruction
What does presence of
-Rapid weight gain
yellowish mass on the conjunctiva that may be related to exposure to ultraviolet light, dry climates, and dust
-Often seen in the SVC region.
-Due to > shunted steroidal estrogen precursors causing arteriolar dilation.
Thickening and shrinking of the fascia of the palm with fingers being drawn into a flexed position.
Linked w/ > alcohol-related CLD.
Can be > familial or associated w/ conditions causing microvascular pathology.
Bilateral parotid swelling may be a feature of?
-Chronic alcohol abuse
Surgical opening in the ileum or colon
Sister Mary Joseph nodule
hard subcutaneous nodule in umbilicus that occurs with metastatic cancer of stomach, large intestine, ovary, or pancreas
Campbell de morgan spots
-They are a harmless benign tumor, containing an
abnormal proliferation of blood vessels
, and have
relationship to cancer.
-They are the most common kind of angioma, and
increase with age
, occurring in
nearly all adults over 30 years
guarding refers to :______?
The voluntary contraction of the abdominal muscles when palpation provokes pain.
guarding refers to :_______?
The reflex contraction of the abdominal muscles when there is inflammation of the parietal peritoneum
Tinkling bowel sounds
pain with palpation of the RUQ during inspiration, indicative of cholecystitis
enlargement of the gallbladder caused by a slow, progressive obstruction of the distal common bile duct from an external mass such as adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head
The colon positioned anterior and superior to the liver and below the right hemidiaphragm without any abdominal symptoms creates which radiographic sign?
Palpable distended painless gallbladder
Palpable distension of the gallbladder may result from :
-obstruction of the
-obstruction of the
( like in pancreatic ca).
A bruit over the
may be heard in :
-Acute alcoholic hepatitis
Pulsatile liver indicates?
Chronic liver dz
Bowel sounds in
-High pitched, tinkling quality
The most common type of abdominal hernia is?
When the contents of the hernia can be manipulated back into its original position through the defect from which it emerges, this a _______hernia.
is an irreducible hernia in which the contents of the hernial sac are entrapped or stuck in the groin
refers mainly to hernias containing bowel, where the contents of the hernia are compressed to the extent that the bowel lumen is no longer patent and causes bowel obstruction
occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off
Direct Inguinal Hernia
Caused by => weakness in the posterior wall of the inguinal canal.
The abdominal contents are forced through this defect and enter the inguinal canal => contents emerge in the canal medial to the deep ring
#More common in => Older Men&Women
Indirect Inguinal Hernia
does not pierce the posterior wall
The abdominal contents
pass through the deep inguinal ring
, passing through the inguinal canal and exiting via the superficial ring.
Tumor of the ovary results from transperitoneal spread of gastric ca
Causes of recurrent
-Crohn's dz (usually)
Commonest intraabdominal surgical emergency is?
used in the diagnosis of appendicitis
If a patient wants to eat, consider a dx other than appendicitis.
Anorexia is 80% sensitive for appendicitis.
A positive hamburger sign is demonstrated by a patient declining food
The most common cause of acute abdomen requiring emergency surgical intervention in both children and adults is?
Characteristic features of
periumbilical abdominal pain that migrates to the RIF,
, low-grade fever, and
McBurney point tenderness
Intestinal complications of
Extraintestinal manifestations of UC :
primary sclerosing cholangitis,
uveitis, and arthritis
developmental disorder characterized by the absence of ganglia in the distal colon, resulting in a functional obstruction
pain in the RLQ when the LLQ is palpated (indicative of appendicitis)
Hyperextension of the right hip causes abdominal pain due to :
Bowel sounds in
Reduced or absent
ecchymosis over anteromedial thigh secondary to blood seeping along the fascia of psoas and iliacus.
The most common cause of gas under diaphragm is?
hollow viscous perforation
Nonsurgical causes of abdominal pain include?
Familial Mediterranean fever
Hematuria - Timing
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