NIGHT TERRORS- appears to awaken abruptly from a deep sleep early in the night in a state of agitation. The child may scream and sit up in bed, breathing rapidly and staring or thrashing about. Yet he is not really awake. He quiets down quickly and remembers nothin about the episode the next morning. Night terrors generally peak between 2.5 to 4 years of age and decline thereafter; some researchers believe they are related to anxiety. Prevalence estimates of night terrors vary widely, and range from approximately 6 to almost 40% of children.
SLEEP WALKING- Walking and talking during sleep are faily common in early and middle childhood. It is estimated that approximately 9% of children between ages 3-10 slepp walk, and a full 37% sleeptalk. Sleepwalking and sleeptalking are generally harmless, and their frequency declines as children age. It is best not to interrupt sleepwalking or night terrors because interruption may confuse and further frighten the child. Rather, the child can be quietly guided back to their room and tucked in to sleep.
NIGHTMARES- are common during early childhood. They usually occur toward morning and are often brought on by staying up too late, eating a heavy meal close to bedtime, or overexcitementfor example, watching an action-packed television program, seeing a terrifying movie, or hearing a frightening bedtime story. An occasional bad dream is no cause for alarm, but frequent or persistent nightmares, especially those that make a child fearful or anxious during walking hours, may signal excessive stress.
Children may suffer from problems falling or staying asleep; physiological problems such as obstructive sleep apnea abnormal or disruptive behaviors during sleep such as sleepwalking or other parasomnias symptoms that occur near sleep onset such as restless legs syndrome, and daytime symptoms such as excessive sleepiness, cataplexy and others
Density of gray matter increases (volume decreases) .
Gray matter responsible for muscle control, sensory perception such as seeing and hearing, memory, emotions, speech, decision making, and self-control
White matter volume increases
White Matter-Thicker myelin sheathes, increased axonal diameter and improved organization of white matter tracts can improve signal transduction, and may be critical factors in allowing cognitive, behavioral, and emotional development to take place in an optimal fashion.