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Politics of the United States
AP Government SCOTUS Cases
Terms in this set (21)
Engel v. Vitale (1962)
NY has student led, voluntary, non-denominational prayer in schools. Ruling: Yes, violates establishment clause; there may not be a prayer, even a nondenominational one, in public schools.
Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)
Wanted to let kids get out of school after 8th grade even though they were required to stay in school until 16. Ruling: Yes, they can leave early because free exercise clause, it's what their religion says.
Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971)
Do statutes that provide state funding for non-public, non-secular schools violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment? Ruling: Yes, the Court held that a statute must pass a three-pronged test in order to avoid violating the Establishment Clause. Three tests are described for deciding whether the government is improperly involved with religion.
Texas v. Johnson (1989)
There may not be a law that bans flag burning is protected expression under the 1rst Amendment.
Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)
Does a prohibition against the wearing of armbands in public school, as a form of symbolic protest, violate the students' freedom of speech protections guaranteed by the First Amendment? Ruling: Yes. The Supreme Court held that the armbands represented pure speech that is entirely separate from the actions or conduct of those participating in it. The Court also held that the students did not lose their First Amendment rights to freedom of speech when they stepped onto school property. The school officials must be able to prove that the conduct in question would "materially and substantially interfere" with the operation of the school.
NYTimes Co. v. US
"Pentagon Papers" were released, Did the Nixon administration's efforts to prevent the publication of what it termed "classified information" violate the First Amendment?
Schenck v. US (1917)
Espionage Act Passed. Could limits be placed on speech during war time? Ruling: yes, words can be weapons in time of war. Clear and Present danger test.
Miller v. Cali (1973)
Is the sale and distribution of obscene materials by mail protected under the First Amendment's freedom of speech guarantee? Ruling: Obscenity defined as appealing to prurient interests of an average person with materials that lack literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. Created the Miller Test
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Does the Sixth Amendment's right to counsel in criminal cases extend to felony defendants in state courts? Persons charged with a crime have a right to an attorney even if they cannot afford one. Violated the 6th Amendment.
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
Does the Fifth Amendment's protection against self-incrimination extend to the police interrogation of a suspect? Ruling: Yes, The Fifth Amendment requires that law enforcement officials advise suspects of their right to remain silent and to obtain an attorney during interrogations while in police custody.Court describes ruling that police must give to arrested persons.
Mapp v. Ohio (1961)
Were the confiscated materials protected from seizure by the Fourth Amendment? Ruling: Yes, Evidence illegally gathered by the police may not be used in a criminal trial. The Supreme Court required the use of the exclusionary rule as a way of enforcing a variety of constitutional guarantees. Exclusionary rule
Griswold v. CT (1965)
Does the Constitution protect the right of marital privacy against state restrictions on a couple's ability to be counseled in the use of contraceptives? Ruling: Yes, A right to privacy can be inferred from several amendments in the Bill of Rights, and this right prevents states from making the use of contraception by married couples illegal. Found a "right to privacy" in the Constitution that would ban any state law against selling contraceptives.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Does the Constitution recognize a woman's right to terminate her pregnancy by abortion? Ruling: Yes, State laws against abortion were unconstitutional. Inherent in the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment is a fundamental "right to privacy" that protects a pregnant woman's choice whether to have an abortion.
Obergefell v. Hodges (2015)
(1) Does the Fourteenth Amendment require a state to license a marriage between two people of the same sex? (2) Does the Fourteenth Amendment require a state to recognize a marriage between two people of the same sex that was legally licensed and performed in another state? Ruling: Yes, Yes, the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees the right to marry as one of the fundamental liberties it protects, and that analysis applies to same-sex couples in the same manner as it does to opposite-sex couples.
McDonald v. Chicago (2010)
Does the Second Amendment apply to the states because it is incorporated by the Fourteenth Amendment's Privileges and Immunities or Due Process clauses and thereby made applicable to the states? Ruling: Yes, the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which guarantees "the right of the people to keep and bear Arms," applies to state and local governments as well as to the federal government.
DC v. Heller (2008)
Do the provisions of the District of Columbia Code that restrict the licensing of handguns and require licensed firearms kept in the home to be kept nonfunctional violate the Second Amendment? Ruling: Yes, The ban on registering handguns and the requirement to keep guns in the home disassembled or nonfunctional with a trigger lock mechanism violate the Second Amendment.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Upheld separate-but-equal facilities for white and black people on railroad cars.Upheld separate-but-equal facilities for white and black people on railroad cars.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Desegregated schools. Said that separate public schools are inherently unequal, thus starting racial desegregation.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971)
Were federal courts constitutionally authorized to oversee and produce remedies for state-imposed segregation? Ruling: Yes, once violations of previous mandates directed at desegregating schools had occurred, the scope of district courts' equitable powers to remedy past wrongs were broad and flexible. Approved busing and redrawing district lines as ways of integrating public schools.
Regents of Uni Cali v. Bakke (1978)
In a confused set of rival opinions, the decisive vote was cast by Justice Powell, who said that a quota-like ban on Bakke's admission was unconstitutional but that "diversity" was a legitimate goal that could be pursued by taking race into account.
Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger
Numerical benefits cannot be used to admit minorities into college, but race can be a "plus factor" in making those decisions.
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