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History Key terms Exam 1
Terms in this set (34)
American Federation of Labor
A union, formed in 1886, that organized skill workers along craft lines. It focused on workplace issues rather that political or social reform.
land used for growing crops and raising live stock
Interstate Commerce Act
Federal law establishing, in 1887, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the nation's first regulatory agency.
Knights of Labor
A national labor organization, formed, in 1869, that promoted union solidarity, political reform, and sociability among members. Its advocacy of the eight-hour day led to violent strikes in 1886 and the organization's subsequent decline.
A french term-literally, "to let alone"-used in economic contexts to signify the absence of governmental interference in or regulation of economic matters.
a term of scorn applied to wealthy capitalists of the late nineteenth century who obtained their wealth and status through exploitation of workers and questionable business practices.
Sherman Antitrust Act
a federal law, passed in 1890, that outlawed monopolistic organizations that functioned to restrain trade.
a belief that charles darwin's theory of the evolution of species also applied to social and economic institutions and practices. The "fittest" enterprises or individuals prevailed, while those that were defective naturally faded away. Society thus progressed most surely when competition was unrestricted by government.
government ownership and supervision of major economic enterprises; or the political ideology that embraces such policies
an arrangement by which a corporation is legally managed by one set of persons (the trustees) while the benefits of ownership are retained by another set of persons (the beneficiaries).
a fear or hatred of immigrants, ethnic minorities, or alien political movements.
reference to the influx of immigrants to the united states during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century predominantly from southern and eastern Europe.
community centers, founded by reformers such as Jane Addams and Lillian Wald beginning in the 1880s, that were located in poor urban districts of major cities; the centers sought to Americanize immigrant families and provide them with social services and a political voice.
a doctrine preached by many urban Protestant ministers during the early 1900s that focused on improving living conditions for the city's poor rather than on saving souls; proponents advocated civil service reform, child labor laws, government regulation of big business, and a graduated income tax.
four-to six-story residential apartment house, once common in New York and certain other cities, built on a tiny lot with little regard for adequate ventilation or light.
a philosophical system, chiefly associated with William James, that deemphasized abstraction and assessed ideas and cultural practices based on their practical effects; it helped inspire political and social reform during the late nineteenth century.
Crop Lien System
A system of agriculture in which local landowners and merchants loaned money to farm workers in return for a portion of the harvest of cash crops. By forcing farmers to plan cash crops, the system discouraged diversified agriculture in the South.
An amendment (1870), championed by the Republican party, that south to guarantee the vote to blacks in the South following the Civil War.
Three Laws passed by the Republican-dominated Congress in 1870-1871 to protect black voters in the South. The laws placed state elections under federal jurisdiction and imposed fines and imprisonment on those guilty of interfering with any citizen exercising his right to vote.
An amendment, passed by Congress in 1866 and ratified in 1868, that prohibited states from depriving citizens of the due process or the equal protection of the laws. Although the amendment was a response to discriminatory laws against blacks in the South, it figured prominently in the expansion of individual rights and liberties during the last half of the twentieth century.
a federal refugee agency to aid former slaves and destitute whites after the Civil War. It provided them food, clothing, and other necessities as well as helped them find work and set up schools.
Ku Klux Klan
Founded as a social club in 1866 by a handful of former Confederate soldiers in Tennessee, it became a vigilante group that used violence and intimidation to drive African Amercians out of politics. The movement declines in the late 1870s but resurfaced in the 1920s as political organization that opposed all groups-immigrant, religious, and racial- that challenged Protestant white hegemony.
A faction within the Republican party, headed by Thaddeus Stevens and Benjamin Wade, that insisted on black suffrage and federal protection of the civil rights of blacks. After 1867, the Radical Republicans achieved a working majority in Congress and passed legislation promoting Reconstruction.
The twelve-year period of postwar readjustment that followed the Civil War and the process through which the governments of seceded states were reorganized for readmission to the Union.
White southern Republicans-mainly small landowning farmers and well-off merchants and planters-who cooperated with the congressionally imposed Reconstruction governments set up in the South following the Civil War.
A type of agriculture, frequently practiced in the South during and after Reconstruction, in which landowners provided land, tools, housing, and seed to a farmer who provided his labor; the resulting crop was divided between them (i.e., shared).
Ten Percent Plan
A measure drafted by President Abraham Lincoln in 1863 to readmit states that had seceded once 10 percent of their prewar voters swore allegiance to the Union and adopted state constitutions outlawing slavery.
Amendment Passed in 1865, this amendment declared an end to slavery and negated the Three-fifths clause in the Constitution, thereby increasing the representation of the southern states in Congress.
An 1864 alternative to Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan, this measure required a majority of voters in a southern state to take a loyalty oath in order to begin the process of Reconstruction and guarantee black equality. It also required the repudiation of the Confederate debt. The president exercised a pocket veto, and it never became law.
farms Enormous corporation-controlled farms made possible by newly available farm machinery and the development of rail connections with the East.
Trail An overland route west through Wyoming and Montana, which, because it passed through the heart of the Sioux hunting grounds in southern Montana, was the source of fierce reprisals from the Indians that inhabited the area.
Chinese Exclusion Act
A law passed by Congress in 1882 that prohibited Chinese immigration to the United States; it was overturned in 1943.
Lode The first major vein of silver ore in the United States, discovered in the late 1850s, near Virginia City, Nevada.
Dawes Severalty Act
An 1887 law terminating tribal ownership of land and allotting some parcels of land to individual Indians with the remainder of the land left open for white settlement. It included provisions for Indian education and eventual citizenship. The law led to corruption, exploitation, and the weakening of Indian tribal culture. It was reversed in 1934.
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