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APWH Key Terms Unit 1:8BCE-600CE
Terms in this set (43)
The first part of the Stone Age. Also called the Old Stone Age. This era lasted until about 10,000 years ago. During this time people used stone tools
the last period of the stone age when human beings began to develop agriculture and use tools and weapons made from shaped and polished stone
the doing of specific types of work by trained or knowledgeable workers
A complex, highly organized social order
the science and technology of metals
slash & burn agriculture
a farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land
"land between the rivers"
People who dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE. Responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
the epic of Gilgamesh
a Mesopotamian story that tells about the quest for immortality and the inevitability of death, and which includes a flood story similar to that of Noah's Ark. This epic is important because it illustrates the Israelites' same fear of death and desire for immortality.
The earliest known people of the Fertile Crescent were the Sumerians. About 4000 B.C. they lived in southern Mesopotamia in a number of independent city-states. Each consisted of a small city and its surrounding area.
-built walls because there are no natural barriers
temples built by Sumerians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshipped
the code of hammurabi
a collection of laws covering crimes, farming, business activities, and marriage and family. Many of the punishments were cruel, but the code was an important step in the development of a justice system
Men made decisions about the division of household chores among family members, and they arranged marriages.
a system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols invented by the sumerians around 3000 B.C.
they extended their own empire and therefore helped bring civilization to the Middle East; Hammurabi introduced his code of law; it established rules of procedure for courts of law and regulated property rights and the duties of family members, setting harsh punishments for crimes
the hebrews and monotheism
- this group was the first and only religion of the time to worship only one god - Yaweh
-Abraham is considered to be the father of the Hebrews
22 signs, basis for english alphabet
older than 1050 B C & helped Greeks make their language.
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile
the title of the ancient Egyptian kings
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
farmers and herders who migrated south and spread language and skills-1000BC - 1000AD
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation , and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials. (p. 48)
Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system.
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
(Hinduism) the name for the original social division of Vedic people into four groups (which are subdivided into thousands of jatis)
in traditional Hindu society, a social group that defines a family's occupation and social standing
a ritual that required a woman to throw herself on her late husband's funeral pyre or burn herself. This was done gladly and if a woman didn't comply with this she would be disgraced.
Means "to seat near". Sacred texts that explain the ideas within the Vedas. They use stories, parables, and poems to help the common people understand the "truths" contained within the Vedas.
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
Also known as the Huanghe; site of development of sedentary agriculture in China.
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism
mandate of heavan
People believed that heaven gave them the authority to rule. They also believed that heaven would take it away
The practice of praying to your ancestors. Found especially in China.
animal bones carved with written characters which were used for telling the future
books of songs
Also called the Shijing, a collection of over 300 Chinese poems and songs ranging in genre from satire to sacrificial.
River that cuts through central China and flows from the mountains of Tibet to Pacific Ocean
A Mesoamerican civilization that flourished around 1200 C.E.. Achievements include irrigation, a simple calendar and writing system, and small cities.
a family of American Indian languages spoken by Mayan peoples
a book containing a versioin of the Mayan story of creation.
the earliest inhabitants of New Guinea foraged food, like their neighbors to the south. Had remarkable seafaring skills.
The first Austronesian migrants to sail out into the Pacific Ocean and establish settlements in the Pacific islands; sailed as far as Madagascar
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