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American History 111: Exam 1
Terms in this set (76)
5 Pillars of American Nationalism
1. idea of forming a separate nation state
- individual rights
- right to bear arms
division of powers within government
- the people should choose leaders
4. protestant christianity
- all non-whites incapable of self government
A plan by Abraham Lincoln that would help restore the South by allowing a southern state to rejoin the union if at least 10% of it's voters swore loyalty to the union and if slavery were abolished.
1865. Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs.
1864 - proposed by Congress to counteract Lincoln's 10% plan. Required the majority (over 50%) vote to allow southern states back in to the union. Pocket vetoed by Lincoln, congress unhappy
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South.
Command of the Army Act
An act issued in 1867 that forced Andrew Johnson to issue military orders through the general of the army (then Ulysses S. Grant) instead of directly to the south.
1866 Civil Rights Act
The first civil rights act in US history. It had little power. It was passed by congress over Johnson's veto. The Act stated all persons born in the US were citezens regardless of race. As citizens they could make and enforce contracts, sue and be sued, give evidence in court, and inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property.
Iron Clad Oath
Promised loyalty to the Northern Union. The oath stated that you could only be a part of government if you had never bear arms towards the Union and had to except the end of slavery.
Northerners who moved down to the South during Reconstruction for monetary or political gain
Compromise of 1877
After the disputed Presidential Election of 1876, Congress declared Republican Rutherford B. Hayes the winner, but Republicans promised to withdraw remaining troops from Southern states & no longer attempt to reshape Southern states; marked the end of Reconstruction as Democrats regained control of the South
19th President, ended reconstruction by removing federal troops, disputed Tilden/Hayes election resulted in the Compromise of 1877
A faction of the Republican party led by Conkling in the end of the 1800s. Supported the political machine and patronage. Conservatives who opposed civil service reform.
Leader of the A.R.U. (American Railway Union), he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
George A. Custer
Discovered gold in Black Hills of South Dakota, his seventh cavalry division was decimated by the Sioux at the battle of Little Big Horn, Former General during the Civil War, he set out in 1874 with his Seventh Cavalry to return the Plains Indians to the Sioux reservation. Defeated by an army that outnumbered his men 10 to 1.
Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
A.R.U. (American Railway Union)
founded by Eugene V. Debs; created in a short-lived attempt to bring all railroad workers under the umbrella of one organization; key strike at Pullman
Famous promoter of success story... Started as minister of small town, but moved to NY and wrote +100 novels all about "rags to riches," which captured aspirations of many men.
travels around the country to give motivational speeches. gave the same lecture "Acres of Diamonds" over 6000 times
author of Our Country, on Anglo-Saxon superiority; a popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas
movement in favor of people born in the U.S., WASPS in particular
American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration. Founded by Henry Bowers in 1887
Pendleton Civil Service Act
1883 - 14,000 jobs placed on merit list. tests were required to get jobs. ended spoils system
The Gilded Age
1877-1900; rapid industrialization, urbanization, immigration; rise of big business and the labor movement; the Populist movement
Republican nominee in the presidential election of 1884. The Maine politician was an obvious candidate, but many he was linked to dishonest business deals, causing many Republicans to leave the party
Garfield's vice president. Toke over presidency after Garfield's assassination. Was a Stalwart. Became a civil service reformer when pres.
Organized farmer groups which tried to combat big businesses and exploitation of farmers.
U.S. Battleship that exploded in Havana Harbor in 1898; Evidence suggests an internal explosion, however Spanish military was framed by Yellow Journalism; The incident was a catalyst for the Spanish American War
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
A group of renegade Republicans who supported 1884 Democratic presidential nominee Grover Cleveland instead of their party's nominee, James G. Blaine.
Treaty of Paris 1898
Approved by the Senate on February 6, 1898, it ended the Spanish-American War. The U.S. gained Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
Open Door Notes
message send by secretary of state John Hay in 1899 to Germany, Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy & Japan asking the countries not to interfere with US trading rights in China.
Newspapers that used sensational headlines and exaggerated stories in order to promote readership
William Howard Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Bull Moose party
nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912
1906 - Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
Farmers and populists wanted silver to be part of the circulation. It would cause inflation and the crop prices would go up. decreased farmer's debt
Trends in US History
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
1865, abolished slavery in the United States
1868: American citizenship redefined with all citizens guaranteed equal legal protection by all the states
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
1867 Plan for Reconstruction
The former confederate states were militarily occupied by US troops. States could re-enter the union once they ratified the 14th amendment.
Tenure Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
Secretary of War appointed by Lincoln. President Andrew Johnson dismissed him in spite of the Tenure of Office Act, and as a result, Congress wanted Johnson's impeachment.
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Southern whites which took federal jobs in the south. they were hated by southerners.
Democratic candidate for presidency in 1876 won popular vote but was one vote short in electoral college, as compromise the republican candidate (Hayes) became president due to the Compromise of 1877
a person who became successful by their own efforts, the American ideal in the 1830s
republican reformers who were accused of backing reform simply to create openings for their own supporters, led by James G. Blaine
Great Northern Railroad
The northernmost of the transcontinental railroad lines, organized by economically wise and public-spirited industrialist James J. Hill
(1876) Battle during which the Sioux Tribe defeated the U.S. Army forces led by Colonel George A. Custer.
chief of the Chokonen band of the Chiricahua Apache and the leader of an uprising that began in 1861 most famous Apache leaders
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
1894, , in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars
workers protest in chicago for better wages and 8 hour work days. protest turns violent, bomb goes off and kills policemen.
William Holmes McGuffey
Created textbooks that became widely accepted as the basis of reading and moral instruction in many schools. The McGuffey readers were extolled the virtues of hard work, punctuality, and sobriety.
He asserted that economic theory should reflect social conditions, and believed that the government should act to regulate the economy to prevent social injustice.
American Economic Association
1888, yearly prize of $150 to the best essay submitted on evil effects of unrestricted immigration
Schools associated with a church, usually Roman Catholic. The funding of these schools became a major political issue in the 1850s.
organized in 1867, objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities.
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
22nd and 24th president, Democrat, Honest and hardworking, fought corruption, vetoed hundreds of wasteful bills, achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform, violent suppression of strikes
A special tax added to imported goods to raise the price, thereby protecting American businesses and workers from foreign competition.
New Manifest Destiny
acquisition of new land not attached to the United States
'The Peoples Party', this party group was made up of farmers who wanted more direct say in the government and the coining of silver as well as government take over of railroads, telephones, and telegraphs.
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party. Later a witness in the Scopes Monkey Trial
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Navy officer whose ideas on naval warfare and the importance of sea-power changed how America viewed its navy
1898 - America wanted Spain to peacefully resolve the Cuaban's fight for independence - the start of the war was due in large part to yellow journalism
trap large number of foreign diplomats trapped in Peking
Treaty of Portsmouth
1905 treaty between Russia and Japan ending the Russo-Japanese War
(1858-1919) Twenty-sixth president of the United States; he focused his efforts on trust busting, environment conservation, and strong foreign policy.
1906, puts a limit on rates the railroad can charge farmers
Election of 1912
Presidential campaign involving Taft, T. Roosevelt, and Woodrow Wilson. progressives form Bull Moose Party around Roosevelt. Republican vote split allowing Woodrow Wilson to win
known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly)
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