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24 terms

Review Biology

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organic compound
A compound that contains carbon
monomer
a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
macromolecule
a very large organic molecule, usually a polymer, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
condensation reaction
a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
hydrolysis
a chemical reaction between water and another substance to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base
ATP
adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups
carbohydrate
a class of molecules that includes sugars, starches, and fiber; contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
monosaccharide
a simple sugar that is the basic subunit of a carbohydrate
disaccharide
a sugar formed from two monosaccharides
polysaccharide
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
protein
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
amino acid
basic building blocks of protein molecules
polypeptide
a long chain of several amino acids
enzyme
a molecule that acts as a catalyst in biochemical reactions
substrate
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
active site
on an enzyme, the site that attaches to a substrate
lipid
a fat molecule or a molecule that has similar properties; examples include oils, waxes, and steroids
fatty acid
with glycerol, make up the building blocks of lipids
phospholipid
a lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids
nucleic acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
nucleotide
in a nucleic-acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
denature
when an enzyme changes shape, To unravel the three-dimensional shape of a protein or other macromolecule, as by high temperature or pH.