First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war-free elections
Conference where Truman, Atlee and Stalin complete post-war agreements. Trinity test is successful during this time, Stalin refused free elections
Iron Curtain speech
Given by the former Prime Minister of Britain, Winston Churchill, in Missouri, in which he talks about the dangers of communism engulfing Europe.
West Germany (Frederal Republic of Germany)
became independent country when US, France, and Britain gave back each of their zones
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952), prevent spread of communism
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; collective security organization consisted of the democracies in Europe, US, and Canada to prevent against Soviet expansion in Europe
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war-particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Josip Broz Tito
Marxist Leninist communist who hated stalin. Soviet forces never allowed to come in and liberate Yugoslavia. He creates his own communist authoritarian regime. Not under stalin's control.
USSR leader, power struggle ensued after Stalin died, Khrushchev emerged as the leader a few years later
20th Party Congress Speech
Speech given by Kruschev to the members of the 20th party congress were he denounced and proclaimed his anti salin views.
Boris Pasternak, Dr. Zhivago
intellect who rejects brutality of Bolshevik revolution and Stalinism, and its ultimately destroyed
Aleksandr Solzenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
portrays in grim detail life in a Stalinist gulag (where he had been a prisoner)
Hungarian Uprising 1956
students and workers installed a liberal Communist reformer, ask for US help but US refuses and many die
the two sides in the Cold War decide to cooperate in such areas as space, trade, education, and science
USSR agreed in '55 to real independence for a neutral Austria after 10 years of Allied occupation
Geneva Conference, 1955
President Eisenhower attempted to make peace with the new Soviet Union dictator, Nikita Khrushchev, following Stalin's death. Peace negotiations were rejected.
Russian satellite was sent into orbit on a rocket and was brought back safely to USST, freaks US
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuba becomes Communist under Fidel Castro; US demanded Soviets remove their newly installed nuclear missiles from Cuba
issued in response to Prague Spring, then the Soviets and allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need
W German chancellor, began to improve relations with E Europe though his "eastern initiative"
Final act: officially ended WWII by legitimizing Soviet-dictated boundries of Poland etc
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
led to US refusal to ratify SALT II treaty (reducing nuclear armaments) and led to President Carter's boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
Pope John Paul II
Polish cardinal, elected in '79 traveled through Poland preaching love of Christ and country and "inalienable rights of man"
aimed to open Soviet society by introducing free speech and some politcal liberty, while ending party censorship, more sucessful
"resttructing" of economy-aimed to revive sagging Soviet economy by adopting many of the free-market practices of the W
Vaclav Havel, "Velvet Revolution"
fall of Berlin Wall inspired reformers to break away from Soviet influence; playwrite, became pres
one of the biggest issues of 90s and early 2000s was the insurgency in the predominantly Muslim Russian republic of Chechnya
played key role in de-colonizationa and decline of imperialism, after WWI he led the independence movement through the principle of passive resistance (civil disobedience)
Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel triggered a sucessful nationalist revolution in Egypt in 52 that effectively ended British control of Egypt
British Commonwealth of Nations
beginning in 1957, Britain's colonies achieved independence with little or no bloodshed
Bosnian Serbs tried to liquidate or remove Muslims by shelling cities, confiscating or destroying or houses, gang rape, expulsion, and murder
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
terrorized English cities demanding that Northern Ireland be returned to Ireland
Jean-Marie Le Pen
most outspoken opponent of both immigration and French intergration into the European Union