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84 terms

AP Euro-Cold War

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Tehran Conference
First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
Yalta Conference
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war-free elections
Potsdam Conference
Conference where Truman, Atlee and Stalin complete post-war agreements. Trinity test is successful during this time, Stalin refused free elections
Iron Curtain speech
Given by the former Prime Minister of Britain, Winston Churchill, in Missouri, in which he talks about the dangers of communism engulfing Europe.
West Germany (Frederal Republic of Germany)
became independent country when US, France, and Britain gave back each of their zones
East Germany (German Democratic Republic)
formally established GDR by Walter Ulbricht
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Containment
Us pledged to prevent the further spread of communism
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952), prevent spread of communism
Berlin Airlift 1948-9
Soviets attempt to remove Allies from Berline
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; collective security organization consisted of the democracies in Europe, US, and Canada to prevent against Soviet expansion in Europe
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
hydrogen bomb
US in 1952 adn USSR in 1953
"massive retaliation"
US policy; Eisenhower, shiftd to helping E Europe countries remove communism
Eastern Bloc
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war-particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
gulags
harsh Soviet labor camps often located in Siberia
Josip Broz Tito
Marxist Leninist communist who hated stalin. Soviet forces never allowed to come in and liberate Yugoslavia. He creates his own communist authoritarian regime. Not under stalin's control.
Nikita Khrushchev
USSR leader, power struggle ensued after Stalin died, Khrushchev emerged as the leader a few years later
De-Stalinization
Khrushchev changes the system, remove Stalin's influence
20th Party Congress Speech
Speech given by Kruschev to the members of the 20th party congress were he denounced and proclaimed his anti salin views.
Gosplan
Soviet central economic planning agency: heavy industry and consumer goods and agriculture
Boris Pasternak, Dr. Zhivago
intellect who rejects brutality of Bolshevik revolution and Stalinism, and its ultimately destroyed
Aleksandr Solzenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
portrays in grim detail life in a Stalinist gulag (where he had been a prisoner)
Hungarian Uprising 1956
students and workers installed a liberal Communist reformer, ask for US help but US refuses and many die
"Peaceful Coexistance"
the two sides in the Cold War decide to cooperate in such areas as space, trade, education, and science
Austraian independence
USSR agreed in '55 to real independence for a neutral Austria after 10 years of Allied occupation
Geneva Conference, 1955
President Eisenhower attempted to make peace with the new Soviet Union dictator, Nikita Khrushchev, following Stalin's death. Peace negotiations were rejected.
Sputnik
Russian satellite was sent into orbit on a rocket and was brought back safely to USST, freaks US
"space race"
US was horrified that the Soviets had eclipsed US technology in this area
U-2 incident
American U-2 spy plane shot down over USSR
Berlin Wall
2 million E Germans escaped to W Berlin between 49-61
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuba becomes Communist under Fidel Castro; US demanded Soviets remove their newly installed nuclear missiles from Cuba
Leonid Brezhnev
became new General Secretary
"Prague Spring"
1968 invasion of Czech was the crucial event of teh Brezhnev era
"socialsim with a human face"
sought greater democracy and freedom of speech
Alexander Dubcek
elected leader: ushered new period of thaw and rebirth in famous "Prague Spring"
Brezhnez Doctrine
issued in response to Prague Spring, then the Soviets and allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need
Willy Brandt
W German chancellor, began to improve relations with E Europe though his "eastern initiative"
Ostpolitik
improve relations with East
detente
relaxation of tensions
Salt I
placed limitaions on future arms (nuclear) build up
Helsinki Conference
Final act: officially ended WWII by legitimizing Soviet-dictated boundries of Poland etc
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
led to US refusal to ratify SALT II treaty (reducing nuclear armaments) and led to President Carter's boycott of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
Solidarity
in Poland, popular movement of working people who organized a massive union
Pope John Paul II
Polish cardinal, elected in '79 traveled through Poland preaching love of Christ and country and "inalienable rights of man"
Lech Walesa
led Solidarity movement union
Atlantic Alliance
revitalized itself in the 80s under the leadership of Ronald Reagan in US
Margaret Thatcher
UK in Atlantic Alliance
Helmut Kohl
Germany
Ronald Reagan
took hard-line stance against the Soviets during the first term of his presidency
Mikhail Gorbachev
young, brilliant, new leader, reeduction of Cold War tensions
galsnost
aimed to open Soviet society by introducing free speech and some politcal liberty, while ending party censorship, more sucessful
perestroika
"resttructing" of economy-aimed to revive sagging Soviet economy by adopting many of the free-market practices of the W
INF Treaty 1987
signed by Gorbachev and Reagan in Washington DC 1987
START Treaty 1990
treaty signed in 90 between Gorbachev and President Bush
Revolutions of 1989
ended communist control of easten Europe
German reunification
came down in Nov and E German gov fell as a result
Vaclav Havel, "Velvet Revolution"
fall of Berlin Wall inspired reformers to break away from Soviet influence; playwrite, became pres
Romania, Nicolai Ceaucescu
overthrown and assassinated in 89
fall of Soviet Union
15 republics are now free
Boris Yeltsin
pres of Russia defied Soviet tanks and became a national hero
Chechnya
one of the biggest issues of 90s and early 2000s was the insurgency in the predominantly Muslim Russian republic of Chechnya
Vladimir Putin
KGB colonel
De-Colonization
European powers experienced the disintegration of their empires after WWII
India, Gandhi
played key role in de-colonizationa and decline of imperialism, after WWI he led the independence movement through the principle of passive resistance (civil disobedience)
Dien Bien Phu
French forces defeated, Vietnam
Egypt
Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel triggered a sucessful nationalist revolution in Egypt in 52 that effectively ended British control of Egypt
Algeria
50s Algeria becomes independent of France and quickly fled
British Commonwealth of Nations
beginning in 1957, Britain's colonies achieved independence with little or no bloodshed
Mao Mao
Kenyan group of terrorists/freedom fighters who fought to end English control of Kenya
Yugoslavia
a mountainous republic in southeastern Europe
Slobodan Milosevic
sought a Serbian-dominated Yugoslavia
Croatia
declared independence and each fought Serbia sucessfully
Slovenia
declared independence and each fought Serbia sucessfully
Bosnia-Herzegovina
declared its independence in March 22 and civil war spread there
ethinic cleansing
Bosnian Serbs tried to liquidate or remove Muslims by shelling cities, confiscating or destroying or houses, gang rape, expulsion, and murder
Dayton Agreements
agree to divide Bosnia between Muslims and Serbs
Kosovo
Milosevic attempted to ethnically cleanse Kosovo (province of Serbia) of ethnic-Albanians
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
terrorized English cities demanding that Northern Ireland be returned to Ireland
Basques, ETA
ethnic group that has lived in spain for the longest time
"guest workers"
became a major source of tension among right-wing nationalits
Jean-Marie Le Pen
most outspoken opponent of both immigration and French intergration into the European Union
Jorge Haider
led right-wing Austrian Freedom Party that was staunchly opposed to immigration