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AP Euro: The Cold War and Nationalism 1945-2001
Terms in this set (84)
1943, USSR was guaranteed to be the only power to liberate eastern Europe
1945, Stalin pledged to allow democratic elections in eastern Europe; Germany would be divided into four zones controlled by U.S., France, Britain, and USSR
1945, U.S. president Harry Truman demanded free elections in eastern Europe but Stalin refused; Stalin wanted a "buffer zone" between Germany and USSR for protection against a future war
"Iron Curtain" speech
Winston Churchill, 1946, alerted Americans to a future conflict with the USSR (cutoff of trade, travel, and communication of Eastern Europe by USSR)
West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany)
1949, became an independent country when US, France, and Britain gave back each of their zones; lead by Konrad Adenauer (1949-1963)
East Germany (German Democratic Republic)
1949, formally establish, lead by Walter Ulbricht (1950-1971), whose Communist regime was heavily influenced by Moscow
1947, established the US policy of containment that would last four decades, US gave aid to Greece and Turkey that helped those countries defeat communist insurgencies, US pledged it would help any country financially that was struggling to defeat communism
by 1947, the US pledged to prevent the further spread of communism
1949-51, US sent a massive financial aid package of $13 billion to help war-torn Europe recover form the war; purpose: prevent communism from spreading into economically devaststaed regions while fostering trade between the US and EUrop; result: western and central Europe recovered economically--the "economic miracle"--Soviets refused to allow US aid to countries in eastern Europe
Berlin Airlift, 1948-49
Soviets attempted to remove the Allies from Berlin by cutting off access to the city (located in the Soviets' eastern zone); Stalin ordered taht all roads leading into West Berlin be blocked by Soviet troops; US organized a massive airlift of 277,000 flights into the city, carrying food, medicine and other necessary supplies; after 11 months, the Soviets agreed to lift the blockade
North Atlantic Treat Organization, 1949, founded in response to Berlin Crisi; collective security organization consisted of the democracies in Europe, US and Canada to prevent against Soviet expansion in Europe; if any of the 12 member nations were attacked by the Soviets, the other nationas would come to its defense
response to West Germany joining NATO in 1954, Soviet Union, 1955, similar to NATO in that it provided for collective security for Eastern Bloc countries controlled by the USSR
developed by the US in 1952 and USSR in 1953; far more destructive than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan at the end of World War II; the world now had two nuclear superpowers
US policy, 1953-55, under PResident Eisenhower, the US policy temporarily shifted to helping eastern European countries remove communism; US vowed to destroy USSR with nuclear weapons if it tried to expand
Soviet allies in Eastern Europe, including Bulgaria, Poland, East Germany, Czechosolvakia, Romania, and Hungary; nations favorable to the USSR during the Cold War, provided a buffer zone; aka satellites
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin in easter Russia. Dissidents were sent to the camps, where conditions were generally brutal. Millions died.
Josip Broz Tito
Yugoslavian Premier from 1945 to 1953, and President from 1953 to 1980. He was a member of the Russian Bolshevik party around the time of WWI, but later created a unified socialist Yugoslavia separate from the Soviet Union.
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of Soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
20th Party Congress speech
Speech given by Khruschev to the members of the 20th party congress were he denounced and proclaimed his anti salin views.
resources shifted from heavy industry and the military toward consumer goods and agriculture--Centralized Economic Planning
Boris Pasternak, Dr. Zhivago
Russian writer whose best known novel was banned by Soviet authorities but translated and published abroad (1890-1960), book written by Boris Pasternak (published in Russia in 1988)
Aleksandr Solzenitsyn, One Day in the LIfe of Ivan Denisovich
One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962);Portrays in grim detail life in a Stalinist gulag (where he had been a prisoner), Written by Aleksander Solzhenitsyn; Ivan Denisovich Shukhov endures one more day in a Siberian prison camp and finds joy in survival
Hungarian Uprising, 1956
Series of demonstrations in Hungary against the Soviet Union. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev violently suppressed this pro-Western uprising, highlighting the limitations of America's power in Eastern Europe. (959)
Term used by Khrushchev in 1963 to describe a situation in which the United States and Soviet Union would continue to compete economically and politically without launching a thermonuclear war.
USSR agreed in 1955 to real independence for a neutral Austria after 10 years of Allied occupation
Geneva Conference, 1955
President Eisenhower attempted to make peace with the new Soviet Union dictator, Nikita Khrushchev, following Stalin's death. Peace negotiations were rejected.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
Many scientists and military leaders believed that control of space would be very important. Consequently, the USA and USSR invested billions of dollars in developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc. This investment led to great scientific advances, but also caused friction and insecurities.
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
"socialism with a human face"
what Khrushchev wants to achieve in terms of communism in Russia
Communist Party Secretary of Czechoslovakia; loosens strict rules; permits criticism of government; assures loyalty to USSR; gets kicked out
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
West German chancellor; sought peace with East Germany; went to Poland in December 1970; laid a wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier and another monument commemorating the armed uprising of Warsaw's Jewish ghetto against Nazi armies after which the ghetto was destroyed and survivors were sent to the gas chambers.
Willy Brandt's policy of "opening toward the east" that increased relations between West and East Germany in 1972
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
the first treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
August 1975; all countries recognized borders set out after WWII, including invasion of Germany; agreed to respect human rights - freedom of speech and freedom to move from country to country
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
(1979, Jimmy Carter); purpose-restore pro-Soviet regime; destroyed hopes of Detente and hardened the relations between the US and the Soviet Union; effect- US placed an embargo on the shipment of grain to the Soviet Union
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
Pope John Paul II
This Polish Pope brought the world's attention to the solidarity movement of the Polish, calling for human rights. He became a hero of the Polish nation.
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
September 1, 1939 (the war began), consisted of France, Poland, and the United Kingdom. After 1941, the leaders of the British Empire, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States of America.
leader of conservatives in Great Britain who came to power. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism, in which her economic policy was termed, and improved the British economic situation. She dominated British politics in 1980s, and her government tried to replace local property taxes with a flat-rate tax payable by every adult. Her popularity fell, and resigned.
a West German chancellor Helmut Kohl skillfully exploited the historic opportunity on their doorstep. He represented a ten-point plan for a step by stem unification in cooperation with both East Germany and the international community. He then promised the ordinary citizens of a struggling, bankrupt East Germany an immediate economic bonanza. (1044)
first elected president in 1980 and elected again in 1984. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. (p. 863)
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
INF Treaty, 1987
Reagan and Gorbachev signed this treaty, which provided for the dismantling of all intermediate range nuclear weapons in Russia and all of Europe
START Treaty, 1990
This arms-control treaty signed by Bush and Gorbachev was the first genuine reduction of the nuclear warheads of the Cold War
Revolutions of 1989
The revolutions spurred by Communist nations who wanted to break away from the Warsaw pact
process in which German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) and Berlin was united into a single city
Vaclav Havel, "Velvet Revolution"
Czech dramatist and statesman whose plays opposed totalitarianism and who served as president of Czechoslovakia from 1989 to 1992 and president of the Czech Republic since 1993 (born in 1936), Mass protests in Czechoslovakia, led by playwright Vaclev Havel, that culminated in the fall of communism in that country in November 1989.
Romania, Nicolai Ceaucescu
a Balkan republic in southeastern Europe; oppressive dictator overthrown and assassinated in Dec. 1989
fall of Soviet Union
Costs protecting and maintaining its empire in eastern Europe were too high. Call for reforms from middle class became extremely influential
Was the first President of the Russian Federation from 1991 to 1999. The Yeltsin era was a traumatic period in Russian history—a period marked by widespread corruption, economic collapse, and enormous political and social problems. In June 1991 Yeltsin came to power on a wave of high expectations. On June 12 Yeltsin was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic with 57% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president in Russian history. But Yeltsin never recovered his popularity after endorsing radical economic reforms in early 1992 which were widely blamed for devastating the living standards of most of the Russian population. By the time he left office, Yeltsin was a deeply unpopular figure in Russia, with an approval rating as low as two percent by some estimates.
One of the republics that remains a part of Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union despite independence movements and violent upheaval.
elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track.
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence. European powers experienced the disintegration of their colonial empires after WWII
played a key role in decolonization and the decline of imperialism; 1869-1948: afer WWI he led the independence movement through the principle of passive resistance
Dien Bien Phu
In 1954, Vietminh rebels besieged a French garrison at Dien Bien Phu, deep in the interior of northern Vietnam. In May, after the United States refused to intervene, Dien Bien Phu fell to the communists.
Arab defeat in 1948 by Israel triggered a successful nationalist revolution in Egypt in 1952 that effectively ended British control of Egypt
called it metropolitan france. Close colonies. Across the Mediterranean. Massive efforts at terrorist activities to make a statement. French gov responded to Algerian terrorism brutally. Call their president back, and he gives them their independence and they trust him because he has such good credentials and is such a good nationalist.
British Commonwealth of Nations
An asscociation of nations acknowledging the British monarch as their symbolic head
Founder of the CCP who organized many peasants in China and unified them with his strong beliefs in Communism. He developed a guerilla army and Soviet-style government. Mao reinterpreted many of the traditional Marxist concepts, and applied them to many of the poor, agricultural areas. The CCP had many confrontations with the KMT, lead by Chiang Kai-shek. Even though the KMT was better equipped with more weapons and people, the CCP withstood their attacks with their guerilla warfare and support from many peasants. In 1936, the CCP was able to establish its headquarters in a small area named Yenan. It was conveniently placed far away from Chiang's army and it was close to the Soviet Union.
Civil war broke out in Yugoslavia. As the Communist regime fell, Yugoslavia was divided up into Serbia, Bosnia-Hergezovenia, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia. Fighting soon broke out inside these areas, as Serbs attempted to gain control of the entire territory. The Serbs instituted a policy of "ethnic" cleansing, whose goal was to force non-Serbs out of all areas that the Serbs conquered.
President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and of Yugoslavia 1997 to 2000. A key figure in the ethnic conflicts in the Balkans in the 1900's.
a Balkan nation, once part of Yugoslovia
a southeastern European nation formed after the breakup of Yugoslovia
declared its independence in March 1992 and civil war spread there; Bosnian Serbs (about 30% of population) refused to live in a Muslim-dominated state and began military operations assisted by Serbia and the Yugoslav federal army
Bosnian Serbs tried to liquidate or remove Muslims by shelling cities, confiscating or destroying of houses, gang rape, expulsion, and murder
1995, agreed to divide Bosnia between Muslims and Serbs; Bosnian Serb aspirations to join a Greater Serbia frustrated by US and other NATO troops sent to enforce the Dayton agreements
1999, Milosevic attempted to ethnically cleanse Kosovo (province of Serbia) of ethnic-Albanians, NATO, led by US, bombed Serbia in order to stop the ethnic cleanisng
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
terrorized English cities demanding that Northern Ireland be returned to Ireland
Spain, used terrorism in its attempt for independence
major source of tension among right wing nationalists; North African immigrants in France, Turkish immigrants in Germany and Austria; xenophobia (anti-immigration)
Jean-Marie Le Pen
France, the most outspoken opponent of both immigraiton and French integration into the European Union
Austria, led the right-wing Austrian Freedom Party that was staunchly opposed to immigration; his party's ascension to the ruling ocalition government in 2000 resulted in the EU demanding that he step down