84 terms

Cold War and Nationalism

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Tehran Conference
First major meeting between the Big Three (United States, Britain, Russia) at which they planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Iron Curtain speech
March 1946 Winston Churchill at Fulton College Missouri; said an "iron curtain" had fallen across the Continent.
West Germany
British, American and French zone of Germany and was democratic.
East Germany
country that built the berlin wall to prevent the outward flow of refugees.
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
containment
a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate pecefully
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
Berlin Airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
NATO
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security
Warsaw Pact
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
hydrogen bomb
a nuclear weapon that releases atomic energy by union of light (hydrogen) nuclei at high temperatures to form helium
massive retaliation
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
Eastern Bloc
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war-particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany
Joseph Stalin
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
gulags
harsh Soviet labor camps often located in Siberia
Josip Broz Tito
the Communist leader of Yugoslavia from 1953 to 1980
Nikita Khrushchev
ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation
De-Stalinization
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
20th party congress speech
Speech given by Kruschev to the members of the 20th party congress were he denounced and proclaimed his anti salin views.
Gosplan
The State Planning Commission which oversaw Stalin's series of five year plans
Boris Pasternak
Russian writer whose best known novel was banned by Soviet authorities but translated and published abroad (1890-1960)
Aleksandr Solzenitsyn
One Day in the Life
of Ivan Denisovich (1962)
o Portrays in grim detail life in a Stalinist
gulag (where he had been a prisoner)
Hungarian Uprising
Nagy declared hungary's independence on November 1, 1956. The red army came in and made Kadar leader
peaceful coexistence
Term used by Khrushchev in 1963 to describe a situation in which the United States and Soviet Union would continue to compete economically and politically without launching a thermonuclear war.
austrian independence
USSR agreed in 1955 to real independence for a neutral Austria after 10 years of Allied occupation
geneva conference
A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.
sputnik
a Russian artificial satellite
space race
a competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union
u-2 incident
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
Berlin Wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Cuban Missile Crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
Leonid Brezhnev
Soviet statesman who became president of the Soviet Union (1906-1982)
Prague Spring
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
socialism with a human face
what khrushchev wants to achieve in terms of communism in Russia
Alexander Dubcek
Communist Party Secretary of Czechoslovakia; loosens strict rules; permits criticism of government; assures loyalty to USSR; gets kicked out
Brezhnev Doctrine
Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need.
Willy Brandt
German states who as chancellor of West Germany worked to reduce tensions with eastern Europe (1913-1992)
Ostpolitik
Willy Brandt's policy of "opening toward the east" that increased relations between West and East Germany in 1972
detente
the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)
Salt I
the first treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Helsinki Conference
Final Act: Officially ended WW2 by finally legitimizing the Soviet-dictated boundaries of Poland and other east European countries
Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
A nine-year conflict involving Soviet forces supporting the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan government against the Mujahideen resistance.
Solidarity
a union of interests or purposes or sympathies among members of a group
Pope John Paul II
Assumed Papacy 1979, Conservative Pope, against strengthening women's position in church, more staunch on birth control
Lech Walesa
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Atlantic Alliance
September 1, 1939 (the war began), consisted of France, Poland, and the United Kingdom. After 1941, the leaders of the British Empire, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States of America.
Margaret Thatcher
leader of conservatives in Great Britain who came to power. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism, in which her economic policy was termed, and improved the British economic situation. She dominated British politics in 1980s, and her government tried to replace local property taxes with a flat-rate tax payable by every adult. Her popularity fell, and resigned.
Helmut Kohl
chancellor of east germany. In favor of unifications.
Ronald Reagan
40th President of the United States
Mikhail Gorbachev
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms (born in 1931)
glasnost
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
perestoika
a policy of USSR leader gorbechev to revitalize the econ. by opening it up to more free enterprise
INF Treaty
Reagan and Gorbachev signed this treaty, which provided for the dismantling of all intermediate range nuclear weapons in Russia and all of Europe
START Treaty
This arms-control treaty signed by Bush and Gorbachev was the first genuine reduction of the nuclear warheads of the Cold War
Revolutions of 1989
fall/collapse of communism, revolutions which overthrew Soviet-style communist states in the Eastern-Bloc.
German reunification
east, west germ vote to reunify, sovs and europe feared a strong germany, but agreed b/c germ would be under nato
Vaclav Havel
Czech playwright that called for the independence of Czechoslovakia by 1989; became the first President of Czechoslavakia and the first President of the Czech Republic in 1993 (Velvet Revolution)
Nikolai Ceaucescu
Romanian Violent Revolt
fall of Soviet Union
Costs protecting and maintaining its empire in eastern Europe were too high. Call for reforms from middle class became extremely influential
Boris Yeltsin
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
Chechnya
A republic of Russia that has experienced some of the worst violence because they wanted independence
Vladimir Putin
Russian statesman chosen as president of the Russian Federation in 2000
De-colonization
European powers experienced the disintegration of their colonial empires after WW2
Ghandi
spiritual leader of India who used civil disobedience to expose the British mistreatment and to seek equality for Indians in India
Dien Bien Phu
the French military base fell after a 56-day siege by Vietnam troops
Egypt
a republic in northeastern Africa known as the United Arab Republic until 1971
Algeria
called it metropolitan france. Close colonies. Across the Mediterranean. Massive efforts at terrorist activities to make a statement. French gov responded to Algerian terrorism brutally. Call their president back, and he gives them their independence and they trust him because he has such good credentials and is such a good nationalist.
British Commonwealth of Nations
free and equal states that had a common allegiance to britain. former colonies of britain.
Mao Mao
Chinese communist leader (1893-1976)
Yugoslavia
Civil war broke out in Yugoslavia. As the Communist regime fell, Yugoslavia was divided up into Serbia, Bosnia-Hergezovenia, Macedonia, Croatia and Slovenia. Fighting soon broke out inside these areas, as Serbs attempted to gain control of the entire territory. The Serbs instituted a policy of "ethnic" cleansing, whose goal was to force non-Serbs out of all areas that the Serbs conquered.
Slobodan Milosevic
President of Serbia from 1989 to 1997 and of Yugoslavia 1997 to 2000. A key figure in the ethnic conflicts in the Balkans in the 1900's.
Croatia
a republic in the western Balkans in south-central Europe in the eastern Adriatic coastal area
Slovenia
a mountainous republic in central Europe
Bosnia-Herzegovina
had been annexed by A/H from serbia, the people wanted to still be serbia, the capital was sarajevo
ethnic cleansing
the mass expulsion and killing of one ethic or religious group in an area by another ethnic or religious group in that area
Dayton Agreements
Orchestrated in November 1995 by the US Government, Bosnia was to remain a single state that included a Bosnian-Croatian federation and a Serb Republic.
Kosovo
a Serbian province in southern Yugoslavia populated predominantly by Albanians
Irish Republican Army
a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland
Basques
ethnic group that has lived in spain for the longest time ETA
guest workers
Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.
Jean-Marie Le Pen
leader of the National Front, eventually ran for presidency
Jorg Haider
Did not like the Euro Union. Austrian Policitain