A principal façade, or a part or feature of a façade, often treated as a separate element of the design and highlighted by ornamentation.
Corps de logis
French architecture: A term describing the central element of a building as opposed to its subsidiary wings and pavilions.
A projecting subdivision of a façade
Design, proportioning and disposition of windows and other exterior openings
A colonnaded or arcaded space within the body of a building but open to the air on one side, often at an upper storey overlooking an open court.
Piano nobile or Beletage
Principal storey of a large building, usually one flight above the ground floor.
The overhead interior surface or lining of a room, often concealing the underside of the floor or roof above.
Coffer, caisson or lacunar ceiling
A ceiling adorned with a pattern of recessed panels.
A flat or vaulted ceiling of decorative character
Linear metal ceiling
Suspended ceiling of narrow metal strips
Suspended ceiling of translucent panels
Suspended ceiling of multi-cellular louvers
Thick set process
Tile setting process in which ceramic tile is applied over a Portland cement mortar bed ¾ to 1-1/2 inch thick, allows for accurate slopes and planes
Portland cement mortar
Portland cement, sand, water and hydrated lime used in thick-set process.
Thin bed process
Tile setting process in which ceramic tile is bonded to a continuous , stable backing with a thin coat of dry set mortar, latex-portland cement mortar, epoxy mortar, or an organic adhesive. 1/32 to 1/8 in. thick.
Cementitious or resinous mix for filling joints in ceramic tilework.
A phenomenon of light and visual perception that may be described in terms of an individual's perception of hue, saturation and lightness/brightness
A system for specifying colors arranged in three orderly scales of uniform visual steps according to hue, chroma and value. Hue extends in a rotary direction; value extends vertically; chroma extends from the central axis.
The distribution of energy emitted by a radiant source, arranged in order of wavelengths.
Merging of juxtaposed dots or strokes of pure colors when seen from a distance
WARM color that appears to move FORWARD
COOL color that appears to move AWAY
A triangular diagram developed by Father Birren to described the relationship between a PURE HUE, BLACK and WHITE. Yields secondary tints, tones, shades and grays.
The field of computer science that studies methods and techniques of creating, representing and manipulating image data
A color mode in which white is the additive combination of three primary lights - R Y G C B M
A method for representing and storing graphical image information using a 24-bit color depth to allow more than 16 million colors to be displayed in a digital image.
A rigid, relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support compressive loads applied at the member ends.
An artificial, stonelike building material made by mixing cement and various mineral aggregates with water
A siliceous material, such as fly ash that reacts chemically with slaked lime in the presence of moisture to form a slow-hardening cement, named after Pozzuoli
A hydraulic cement made by burning a mixture of clay and limestone in a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker into a very fine powder
A volcanic glass expanded by heat to form lightweight, spherical particles, used as nonstructural lightweight aggregate and as loose-fill thermal insulation.
Concrete deposited, formed, cured and finished in its final position as part of a structure.
Shotcrete or gunite
A lightweight concrete construction consisting of a mixture of cement, sand or crushed slag and water pumped through a hose and sprayed at high velocity.
Voids on a formed concrete surface caused by segregation during placement or by insufficient consolidation
Spalling or scaling
The chipping or scaling of a hardened concrete or masonry surface caused by freeze-thaw cycles or the application of deicing salts.
Numerous hairline cracks as a result of rapid drying shrinkage
The art, science or business of building
Of or pertaining to an arrangement under which a person or organization contracts directly with an owner to design and construct a building or project
Of or pertaining to an arrangement under which a person or organization designs and constructs a building for sale or lease when ready for occupancy
The competitive process of offering to perform the work described in a contracts for a specified sum.
A formal acceptance of a bid or a negotiated proposal
A legally enforceable agreement, usually in written form, between two or more parties
Notice to proceed
A written communication issued by an owner authorizing a contractor to proceed with the work and establishing the date of commencement of the work.
A written authorization to proceed with construction of a building project in accordance with approved drawings and specifications, issued by the local government agency having jurisdiction after plans have been filed and reviewed.
A person designated by government authority to administer and enforce the provisions of a building code.
Certificate of Occupancy
A document issued by a BO certifying that all or a designated portion of a building complies with the provisions of the Code, and permitting occupancy for its designated use.
Critical Path Method
A method for planning, scheduling and managing a project, combining all relevant information into a flow chart, including optimum sequence and duration of activities, relative significance of each event and the coordination required.
Generally shows the items of work and calendar covering the estimated construction period for the project. A dash or a colored line, extending from starting to completion date, indicates the estimated duration of each item. Actual progress is noted on the chart by a solid line or a line of a different color. The chart also may show percent completion of each item. Medium used for gauging and controlling construction activities.
Difference between scheduled and actual accomplishment, usually indicated in %
The legal documents comprising a construction contract (incl. owner-contractor agreement), conditions, drawings and specifications including all addenda, modifications and any other items
Construction drawings and specifications setting forth in detail the requirements for the project.
Part of the contract documents consisting of a detailed description of the technical nature of the materials, standards, and quality of execution of the work to be placed under contract.
Specification - How a particular component or system must perform
Specification - Refers to a standard, indicate the properties desired and the methods of testing required
Specification - Stipulates the use of specific products, systems or processes, no provision for substitution
SI unit of electric charge, equal to the quantity of electricity transferred across a conductor by a current of one ampere in one second.
Potential difference or electromotive force, analogous to pressure in water flow
SI unit of potential difference and electromotive force; difference of electric potential between two points of a conductor
Product of potential difference and current in a direct-current circuit
SI unit of power
Amount of power
A unit of energy
The rate of flow of electric charge
SI unit of electric current
Opposition of a conductor to the flow of current, causes heat
SI unit of electrical resistance
A device for converting chemical into electric energy
A group of two or more cells connected together to produce electric current
Machine that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy
Machine that converts electric power to mechanical energy
The overhead portion of service conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a building
An electric device consisting of two or more windings wound on the same core, which employs the principle of mutual induction to convert variations of AC in a primary circuit into variations of voltage and current in a secondary circuit
Switch that automatically interrupts an electric circuit to prevent excess current
A channel expressly designed to hold and protect electric wires and cables
An enclosure for housing and protecting wires or cables joined together in connecting or branching electric circuits
A panel in a casing or box that can be readily removed
A moving platform or cage for carrying passengers
An elevator system consisting of a car supported by a piston that is moved by or against a fluid under pressure
An elevator system with a car that is mounted on guide rails supported by hoisting cables and driven by electric hoisting machine; aka traction elevator
An elevator for people
An elevator for cargo
An elevator for carrying food, dishes or other materials between floors of a building
Row of elevators controlled by a common system, responding to a single call button
Chair or platform mounted on a steel guide rail and driven by an electric motor
The level, base surface of a room or hall upon which one stands or walks.
The wearing surface of a floor
A base for a finish floor, consisting of boards or plywood, or other structural sheathing
Any of a series of small, repetitive parallel beams supporting floors, ceilings or flat roofs
Any of various pasty substances used as a sealant, adhesive, or protective coating
A material laid over a subfloor to provide a smooth, even base for flooring
The metal tools, fastenings and fittings used in construction
A jointed device usually consisting of two leaves joined together by a pin
Hinge, composed of two plates secured to the abutting surfaces of a door and a doorjamb
Hinge, mortised into the abutting surfaces of a door and a door jamb
Hinge, one leaf mortised into the door and the other surface mounted to the doorframe
Hinge, one leaf mortised into the doorframe and the other surface-mounted to the door
Hinge, both leaves surface-mounted
Fast pin hinge
Hinge, nonremovable pin
Loose pin hinge
Hinge, removable pin so that the door can be unhung
Hinge, contains a coiled spring in its barrel for closing a door automatically
Double acting hinge
Hinge, allows a door to swing in either direction
Hinge, consisting of a number of flat plates rotating about a central pin with shoulders mortised into the door edge
Hinge, closes automatically by means of gravity
Hinge, door rises slightly when opened
Hinge, has a single, pivoting joint
Hinge, H-shaped with a protruding knuckle
Hinge, has two long leaves
Hinge, strap hinge with leaves narrower at their junction
Cross-garnet or T-hinge
Hinge, T-shaped strap hinge with the crosspiece as the stationary member and the long stem being the movable leaf
An accessory, article or detail that lends grace or beauty to something to which it is added or of which it is an integral part
Pictorial sign or symbol
An ancient drawing or writing scratched on a hard surface
Inscriptions or drawings spray-painted or sketched on a public surface
Decoration produced by cutting or scratching through a layer of paint or plaster
Picture or decorative pattern made by inlaying small, usually colored pieces of tile, enamel or glass in mortar
One of the small pieces of colored glass, marble or tile in mosaic work
Colored glass or enamel, esp. in the form of minute squares in mosaic work
Cosmati or Cosmatesque work
Decorative mosaic technique for architectural surfaces developed by Roman architects in the 12th and 13th centuries. Intricate geometric patterns and smooth areas of plain stone disks and strips.
Sculptured band resembling a long ribbon or scroll
Molding having pendant, tongue-like elements carved in relief against a flat or curved surface
Any of a series of closely spaced, pyramidal ornaments
Small pendant molding forming a drip and casting a deep shadoes
Projecting molding having a profile formed by two ogees symmetrically disposed about an arris or filet.
Boltel or boutel
Convex, rounded molding
Pearl molding or paternoster
Molding having the form of a row of beads. Also called bead molding.
Mixture of solid pigment suspended in a liquid vehicle, applied as a thin coating to a surface for protection and decoration. Pigment + Vehicle (Binder + Solvent)
Finely ground, insoluble substance suspended in a liquid vehicle to impart color and opacity to paint
Liquid in which pigment is dispersed before being applied to a surface to control consistency, adhesion, gross, and durability
Nonvolatile part of a pint vehicle that bonds particles of pigment into a cohesive film during the drying process
Volatile part of a paint vehicle that evaporates during drying
Volatile distillation of petroleum, used as a solvent and thinner for paints and varnishes
Colorless, volatile oil obtained by distilling oleoresin from various considers and used as a thinner and solvent for paints and varnishes
Degree of surface luster of a dried paint film
Having color that will not fade or run with washing, age, or exposure to light
Ray of light that produces photochemical effects (e.g. UV)
Hiding or covering power
Ability of a paint film to conceal any marks, pattern, or color on the surface to which it is applied.
Thin, sometimes pigmented coat applied to a finish coat to improve its luster
Top or finish coat
Final coat of paint applied to a surface
A primer or intermediate coat applied to hide the color of the substrate
Ground coat or color
Primer or basecoat of paint intended to show through a topcoat
Primer or prime coat
basecoat used to improve adhesion of the subsequent coats of paint
Basecoat applied to a surface to reduce the absorption of subsequent coats, to prevent bleeding to the finish coat
Solution of dye or suspension of pigment in a vehicle, applied to penetrate and color a wood surface without obscuring the grain
Liquid preparation of a resin dissolved in OIL or in ALCOHOL, that when spread and allowed to dry forms a hard, lustrous, usually transparent coating
Spar or marine varnish
A durable, weather-resistant varnish made from durable resins and linseed or tung oil
Hard, abrasion-resistant and chemical-resistant varnish made from a plastic resin.
Composition of GYPSUM/LIME WATER, SAND and sometimes HAIR or other FIBERS, applied in a pasty form to the surfaces of walls or ceilings in a plastic state and allowed to harden and dry.
Soft mineral, hydrated calcium sulfate used as a retarder in Portland cement and in the making of plaster
Finely granular form of pure gypsum, often white and translucent, used for ornamental objects and work
Coarse plaster composed of PORTLAND OR MASONRY CEMENT, SAND, AND HYDRATED LIME MIXED WITH WATER and applied in a plastic state to form a hard covering for exterior walls
Stucco used in ancient times, made from powdered marble and lime mortar and often polished
Finish coat of plaster made with white marble dust to receive a fresco
Plasterwork imitating granite or marble
Fine ornamental plasterwork
Three coat plaster
Scratch coat, brown coat, finish coat
Two coat plaster
Base coat, finish coat
Plaster coat to provide a better bond for the second or brown coat
Maximum temperature at which a plastic can be continuously employed without a noticeable reduction in any of its properties
Plastic capable of softening or fusing when heated without change in any inherent properties, hardening again when cooled
Thermoplastic resins used for casting or molding parts that are exceptionally transparent, tough and resistant to weather and chemicals; LUCITE - Trademark for a brand of transparent acrylic resin; PLEXIGLAS - Trademark for a brand of light, transparent, weather resistant acrylic resin.
Tough, transparent thermoplastic characterized by its high impact strength. Used for lighting fixtures, safety glazing, and hardware. LEXAN - Trademark for a brand of tough polycarbonate used for shatterproof windows
Tough, light and flexible thermoplastic used especially in the form of sheeting, film, dampproofing and as vapor retarder.
Tough thermoplastic that is resistant to heat and chemicals and used for pipe fittings, electrical insulation and carpeting fibers.
Hard, tough, stable thermoplastic that is easily colored and molded, expanded, or rolled into sheeting
White, water-insoluble thermoplastic widely used in the manufacture of floor coverings, insulation and piping.
Thermoplastic resin used chiefly as the interlayer of safety glass
Thermoplastics characterized by extreme toughness, strength, elasticity and capable of being extruded into filaments, fibers and sheets
Plastic that becomes permanently rigid when heated
Plastic used in flexible and rigid foams, elastomers, and resins for sealants, adhesives and coatings
Thermosetting resin used in the manufacture of textile fibers. DACRON - Trademark for a brand of strong, wrinkle-resistant polyester fiber. MYLAR - Trademark for a brand of strong, thin polyester film used in photography, recording tapes and electrical insulation.
Polyester reinforced with glass fibers and used in translucent roofs and skylights, facings, plumbing, furniture
Thermosetting resin capable of forming tight cross-linked polymer structures characterized by toughness, strong adhesion, high corrosion and chemical resistance used in surface coatings and adhesives
Thermosetting resins formed by the interaction of melamine and formaldehyde and used for molded products, adhesives and surface coatings
Hard, heat-resistant thermosetting resins formed by the condensation of phenol with formaldehyde and used for molded products, adhesives and surface coatings. BAKELITE - Brand of dark phenolic resin
Ethylene propylene diene monomer
Synthetic rubber manufactured in sheets and used as a roofing membrane
Trademark brand for chlorinated polyethylene
A portion of a space within a building separated by walls or partitions from other similar spaces
a large room or building for public gatherings or entertainment
Long, relatively narrow room or hall
A recess or small room connected to or forming part of a larger room
An axial arrangement of doorways connecting a series of rooms to provide a vista down the entire length of the suite
Connected series or group of rooms arranged to be used together
Pin or hinge joint
Structural connection that allows rotation but resists translation in any direction
Rigid or fixed joint
Structural connection that maintains the angular relationship between joined elements, restrains rotation and translation in any direction
Wastewater produced by toilets and urinals
Relatively clean wastewater from dishwashing, bathing, and laundry
Life cycle costing or cradle to grave analysis
Investigation and evaluation of the full range of environmental and social impacts of a given product, including raw material production, manufacture, distribution, use, disposal and all intervening transportation steps.
all of the energy expended during the life cycle of a material or product.
Low, protective wall at the edge of a terrace, balcony, or roof
A wall bearing or crowned by a gable
Foundation wall that encloses a usable area under a building
A wall used jointly by contiguous structures, erected upon a line dividing two parcels of land, each of which is a separate real-estate entity
Pilaster projecting from a corner of a building
shallow rectangular feature projecting from a wall having a capital and a base
column built so as to be truly or seemingly bonded to the wall
short wall perpendicular to the end of a longer wall
wall with no windows, doorways or any other openings
wall less than a full storey in height
material or membrane built into a building frme to block a concealed hollow space through which fire might spread
A bay window supported from below by corbels or brackets
Softwood lumber intended for general building purposes
wood from responsibly managed forests
a metal ring or cap placed around the end of a wooden post or handle to prevent splitting
Glulam or glue laminated timber
Structural lumber product made by laminating stress-grade lumber with adhesive under controlled conditions