217 terms

CHING

Alphabetical Ching Selected stuvves only
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

BUILDING
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Frontispiece
A principal façade, or a part or feature of a façade, often treated as a separate element of the design and highlighted by ornamentation.
Corps de logis
French architecture: A term describing the central element of a building as opposed to its subsidiary wings and pavilions.
Pavilion
A projecting subdivision of a façade
Fenestration
Design, proportioning and disposition of windows and other exterior openings
Loggia
A colonnaded or arcaded space within the body of a building but open to the air on one side, often at an upper storey overlooking an open court.
Piano nobile or Beletage
Principal storey of a large building, usually one flight above the ground floor.
CEILING
The overhead interior surface or lining of a room, often concealing the underside of the floor or roof above.
Coffer, caisson or lacunar ceiling
A ceiling adorned with a pattern of recessed panels.
Plafond
A flat or vaulted ceiling of decorative character
Linear metal ceiling
Suspended ceiling of narrow metal strips
Luminous ceiling
Suspended ceiling of translucent panels
Louvered ceiling
Suspended ceiling of multi-cellular louvers
CERAMIC TILES
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Thick set process
Tile setting process in which ceramic tile is applied over a Portland cement mortar bed ¾ to 1-1/2 inch thick, allows for accurate slopes and planes
Portland cement mortar
Portland cement, sand, water and hydrated lime used in thick-set process.
Thin bed process
Tile setting process in which ceramic tile is bonded to a continuous , stable backing with a thin coat of dry set mortar, latex-portland cement mortar, epoxy mortar, or an organic adhesive. 1/32 to 1/8 in. thick.
Tile grout
Cementitious or resinous mix for filling joints in ceramic tilework.
COLOR
A phenomenon of light and visual perception that may be described in terms of an individual's perception of hue, saturation and lightness/brightness
Munsell System
A system for specifying colors arranged in three orderly scales of uniform visual steps according to hue, chroma and value. Hue extends in a rotary direction; value extends vertically; chroma extends from the central axis.
Spectrum
The distribution of energy emitted by a radiant source, arranged in order of wavelengths.
Optical mixing
Merging of juxtaposed dots or strokes of pure colors when seen from a distance
Advancing color
WARM color that appears to move FORWARD
Receding color
COOL color that appears to move AWAY
Color triangle
A triangular diagram developed by Father Birren to described the relationship between a PURE HUE, BLACK and WHITE. Yields secondary tints, tones, shades and grays.
COMPUTER GRAPHICS
The field of computer science that studies methods and techniques of creating, representing and manipulating image data
RGB
A color mode in which white is the additive combination of three primary lights - R Y G C B M
True color
A method for representing and storing graphical image information using a 24-bit color depth to allow more than 16 million colors to be displayed in a digital image.
COLUM N
A rigid, relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support compressive loads applied at the member ends.
CONCRETE
An artificial, stonelike building material made by mixing cement and various mineral aggregates with water
Pozzolan
A siliceous material, such as fly ash that reacts chemically with slaked lime in the presence of moisture to form a slow-hardening cement, named after Pozzuoli
Portland cement
A hydraulic cement made by burning a mixture of clay and limestone in a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker into a very fine powder
Perlite
A volcanic glass expanded by heat to form lightweight, spherical particles, used as nonstructural lightweight aggregate and as loose-fill thermal insulation.
Cast-in-place concrete
Concrete deposited, formed, cured and finished in its final position as part of a structure.
Shotcrete or gunite
A lightweight concrete construction consisting of a mixture of cement, sand or crushed slag and water pumped through a hose and sprayed at high velocity.
Honeycomb
Voids on a formed concrete surface caused by segregation during placement or by insufficient consolidation
Spalling or scaling
The chipping or scaling of a hardened concrete or masonry surface caused by freeze-thaw cycles or the application of deicing salts.
Crazing
Numerous hairline cracks as a result of rapid drying shrinkage
CONSTRUCTION
The art, science or business of building
Design-build
Of or pertaining to an arrangement under which a person or organization contracts directly with an owner to design and construct a building or project
Turn-key
Of or pertaining to an arrangement under which a person or organization designs and constructs a building for sale or lease when ready for occupancy
Bidding
The competitive process of offering to perform the work described in a contracts for a specified sum.
Award
A formal acceptance of a bid or a negotiated proposal
Contract
A legally enforceable agreement, usually in written form, between two or more parties
Notice to proceed
A written communication issued by an owner authorizing a contractor to proceed with the work and establishing the date of commencement of the work.
Building permit
A written authorization to proceed with construction of a building project in accordance with approved drawings and specifications, issued by the local government agency having jurisdiction after plans have been filed and reviewed.
Building official
A person designated by government authority to administer and enforce the provisions of a building code.
Certificate of Occupancy
A document issued by a BO certifying that all or a designated portion of a building complies with the provisions of the Code, and permitting occupancy for its designated use.
CPM
Critical Path Method
CPM
A method for planning, scheduling and managing a project, combining all relevant information into a flow chart, including optimum sequence and duration of activities, relative significance of each event and the coordination required.
Bar chart
Generally shows the items of work and calendar covering the estimated construction period for the project. A dash or a colored line, extending from starting to completion date, indicates the estimated duration of each item. Actual progress is noted on the chart by a solid line or a line of a different color. The chart also may show percent completion of each item. Medium used for gauging and controlling construction activities.
Slippage
Difference between scheduled and actual accomplishment, usually indicated in %
Contract documents
The legal documents comprising a construction contract (incl. owner-contractor agreement), conditions, drawings and specifications including all addenda, modifications and any other items
Construction documents
Construction drawings and specifications setting forth in detail the requirements for the project.
Specifications
Part of the contract documents consisting of a detailed description of the technical nature of the materials, standards, and quality of execution of the work to be placed under contract.
Performance specification
Specification - How a particular component or system must perform
Reference specification
Specification - Refers to a standard, indicate the properties desired and the methods of testing required
Proprietary specification
Specification - Stipulates the use of specific products, systems or processes, no provision for substitution
ELECTRICITY
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Coulumb
SI unit of electric charge, equal to the quantity of electricity transferred across a conductor by a current of one ampere in one second.
Voltage
Potential difference or electromotive force, analogous to pressure in water flow
Volt
SI unit of potential difference and electromotive force; difference of electric potential between two points of a conductor
Power
Product of potential difference and current in a direct-current circuit
Watt
SI unit of power
Wattage
Amount of power
Kilowatt-hour
A unit of energy
Current
The rate of flow of electric charge
Ampere
SI unit of electric current
Resistance
Opposition of a conductor to the flow of current, causes heat
Ohm
SI unit of electrical resistance
Cell
A device for converting chemical into electric energy
Battery
A group of two or more cells connected together to produce electric current
Generator
Machine that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy
Electric motor
Machine that converts electric power to mechanical energy
Service drop
The overhead portion of service conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a building
Transformer
An electric device consisting of two or more windings wound on the same core, which employs the principle of mutual induction to convert variations of AC in a primary circuit into variations of voltage and current in a secondary circuit
Circuit breaker
Switch that automatically interrupts an electric circuit to prevent excess current
Raceway
A channel expressly designed to hold and protect electric wires and cables
Junction box
An enclosure for housing and protecting wires or cables joined together in connecting or branching electric circuits
Knockout
A panel in a casing or box that can be readily removed
ELEVATOR
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elevator
A moving platform or cage for carrying passengers
oil-hydraulic elevator
An elevator system consisting of a car supported by a piston that is moved by or against a fluid under pressure
electric elevator
An elevator system with a car that is mounted on guide rails supported by hoisting cables and driven by electric hoisting machine; aka traction elevator
passenger elevator
An elevator for people
freight elevator
An elevator for cargo
dumbwaiter
An elevator for carrying food, dishes or other materials between floors of a building
bank
Row of elevators controlled by a common system, responding to a single call button
inclined lift
Chair or platform mounted on a steel guide rail and driven by an electric motor
FLOOR
The level, base surface of a room or hall upon which one stands or walks.
Finish floor
The wearing surface of a floor
Subfloor
A base for a finish floor, consisting of boards or plywood, or other structural sheathing
Joist
Any of a series of small, repetitive parallel beams supporting floors, ceilings or flat roofs
Mastic
Any of various pasty substances used as a sealant, adhesive, or protective coating
Underlayment
A material laid over a subfloor to provide a smooth, even base for flooring
HARDWARE
The metal tools, fastenings and fittings used in construction
Hinge
A jointed device usually consisting of two leaves joined together by a pin
Butt hinge
Hinge, composed of two plates secured to the abutting surfaces of a door and a doorjamb
Mortise hinge
Hinge, mortised into the abutting surfaces of a door and a door jamb
Half-mortise hinge
Hinge, one leaf mortised into the door and the other surface mounted to the doorframe
Half-surface hinge
Hinge, one leaf mortised into the doorframe and the other surface-mounted to the door
Flap hinge
Hinge, both leaves surface-mounted
Fast pin hinge
Hinge, nonremovable pin
Loose pin hinge
Hinge, removable pin so that the door can be unhung
Spring hinge
Hinge, contains a coiled spring in its barrel for closing a door automatically
Double acting hinge
Hinge, allows a door to swing in either direction
Invisible hinge
Hinge, consisting of a number of flat plates rotating about a central pin with shoulders mortised into the door edge
Gravity hinge
Hinge, closes automatically by means of gravity
Rising hinge
Hinge, door rises slightly when opened
Paumelle
Hinge, has a single, pivoting joint
Parliament hinge
Hinge, H-shaped with a protruding knuckle
Strap hinge
Hinge, has two long leaves
Dovetail hinge
Hinge, strap hinge with leaves narrower at their junction
Cross-garnet or T-hinge
Hinge, T-shaped strap hinge with the crosspiece as the stationary member and the long stem being the movable leaf
ORNAMENTATION
An accessory, article or detail that lends grace or beauty to something to which it is added or of which it is an integral part
Pictograph
Pictorial sign or symbol
Graffito
An ancient drawing or writing scratched on a hard surface
Graffiti
Inscriptions or drawings spray-painted or sketched on a public surface
Sgraffito
Decoration produced by cutting or scratching through a layer of paint or plaster
Mosaic
Picture or decorative pattern made by inlaying small, usually colored pieces of tile, enamel or glass in mortar
Tessera
One of the small pieces of colored glass, marble or tile in mosaic work
Smalto
Colored glass or enamel, esp. in the form of minute squares in mosaic work
Cosmati or Cosmatesque work
Decorative mosaic technique for architectural surfaces developed by Roman architects in the 12th and 13th centuries. Intricate geometric patterns and smooth areas of plain stone disks and strips.
Banderole
Sculptured band resembling a long ribbon or scroll
Calf's tongue
Molding having pendant, tongue-like elements carved in relief against a flat or curved surface
Dog tooth
Any of a series of closely spaced, pyramidal ornaments
Beak
Small pendant molding forming a drip and casting a deep shadoes
Brace molding
Projecting molding having a profile formed by two ogees symmetrically disposed about an arris or filet.
Boltel or boutel
Convex, rounded molding
Pearl molding or paternoster
Molding having the form of a row of beads. Also called bead molding.
PAINT
Mixture of solid pigment suspended in a liquid vehicle, applied as a thin coating to a surface for protection and decoration. Pigment + Vehicle (Binder + Solvent)
Pigment
Finely ground, insoluble substance suspended in a liquid vehicle to impart color and opacity to paint
Vehicle
Liquid in which pigment is dispersed before being applied to a surface to control consistency, adhesion, gross, and durability
Binder
Nonvolatile part of a pint vehicle that bonds particles of pigment into a cohesive film during the drying process
Solvent
Volatile part of a paint vehicle that evaporates during drying
Mineral spirit
Volatile distillation of petroleum, used as a solvent and thinner for paints and varnishes
Turpentine
Colorless, volatile oil obtained by distilling oleoresin from various considers and used as a thinner and solvent for paints and varnishes
Gloss
Degree of surface luster of a dried paint film
Colorfast
Having color that will not fade or run with washing, age, or exposure to light
Acitinic ray
Ray of light that produces photochemical effects (e.g. UV)
Hiding or covering power
Ability of a paint film to conceal any marks, pattern, or color on the surface to which it is applied.
Mistcoast
Thin, sometimes pigmented coat applied to a finish coat to improve its luster
Top or finish coat
Final coat of paint applied to a surface
Undercoat
A primer or intermediate coat applied to hide the color of the substrate
Ground coat or color
Primer or basecoat of paint intended to show through a topcoat
Primer or prime coat
basecoat used to improve adhesion of the subsequent coats of paint
Sealer
Basecoat applied to a surface to reduce the absorption of subsequent coats, to prevent bleeding to the finish coat
Stain
Solution of dye or suspension of pigment in a vehicle, applied to penetrate and color a wood surface without obscuring the grain
Varnish
Liquid preparation of a resin dissolved in OIL or in ALCOHOL, that when spread and allowed to dry forms a hard, lustrous, usually transparent coating
Spar or marine varnish
A durable, weather-resistant varnish made from durable resins and linseed or tung oil
Polyurethane varnish
Hard, abrasion-resistant and chemical-resistant varnish made from a plastic resin.
PLASTER
Composition of GYPSUM/LIME WATER, SAND and sometimes HAIR or other FIBERS, applied in a pasty form to the surfaces of walls or ceilings in a plastic state and allowed to harden and dry.
Gypsum
Soft mineral, hydrated calcium sulfate used as a retarder in Portland cement and in the making of plaster
Alabaster
Finely granular form of pure gypsum, often white and translucent, used for ornamental objects and work
Stucco
Coarse plaster composed of PORTLAND OR MASONRY CEMENT, SAND, AND HYDRATED LIME MIXED WITH WATER and applied in a plastic state to form a hard covering for exterior walls
Albarium
Stucco used in ancient times, made from powdered marble and lime mortar and often polished
Intonaco
Finish coat of plaster made with white marble dust to receive a fresco
Scagliola
Plasterwork imitating granite or marble
Parget
Fine ornamental plasterwork
Three coat plaster
Scratch coat, brown coat, finish coat
Two coat plaster
Base coat, finish coat
Scratch coat
Plaster coat to provide a better bond for the second or brown coat
PLASTIC
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Service temperature
Maximum temperature at which a plastic can be continuously employed without a noticeable reduction in any of its properties
Thermoplastic
Plastic capable of softening or fusing when heated without change in any inherent properties, hardening again when cooled
Acrylic resin
Thermoplastic resins used for casting or molding parts that are exceptionally transparent, tough and resistant to weather and chemicals; LUCITE - Trademark for a brand of transparent acrylic resin; PLEXIGLAS - Trademark for a brand of light, transparent, weather resistant acrylic resin.
Polycarbonate
Tough, transparent thermoplastic characterized by its high impact strength. Used for lighting fixtures, safety glazing, and hardware. LEXAN - Trademark for a brand of tough polycarbonate used for shatterproof windows
Polyethylene
Tough, light and flexible thermoplastic used especially in the form of sheeting, film, dampproofing and as vapor retarder.
Polypropylene
Tough thermoplastic that is resistant to heat and chemicals and used for pipe fittings, electrical insulation and carpeting fibers.
Polystyrene
Hard, tough, stable thermoplastic that is easily colored and molded, expanded, or rolled into sheeting
Polyvinyl chloride
White, water-insoluble thermoplastic widely used in the manufacture of floor coverings, insulation and piping.
Polyvinyl butyral
Thermoplastic resin used chiefly as the interlayer of safety glass
Nylon
Thermoplastics characterized by extreme toughness, strength, elasticity and capable of being extruded into filaments, fibers and sheets
Thermoset
Plastic that becomes permanently rigid when heated
Polyurethane
Plastic used in flexible and rigid foams, elastomers, and resins for sealants, adhesives and coatings
Polyester
Thermosetting resin used in the manufacture of textile fibers. DACRON - Trademark for a brand of strong, wrinkle-resistant polyester fiber. MYLAR - Trademark for a brand of strong, thin polyester film used in photography, recording tapes and electrical insulation.
Fiberglass-reinforced plastic
Polyester reinforced with glass fibers and used in translucent roofs and skylights, facings, plumbing, furniture
Epoxy resin
Thermosetting resin capable of forming tight cross-linked polymer structures characterized by toughness, strong adhesion, high corrosion and chemical resistance used in surface coatings and adhesives
Melamine resin
Thermosetting resins formed by the interaction of melamine and formaldehyde and used for molded products, adhesives and surface coatings
Phenolic resin
Hard, heat-resistant thermosetting resins formed by the condensation of phenol with formaldehyde and used for molded products, adhesives and surface coatings. BAKELITE - Brand of dark phenolic resin
ROOF
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EPDM
Ethylene propylene diene monomer
EPDM
Synthetic rubber manufactured in sheets and used as a roofing membrane
Hypalon
Trademark brand for chlorinated polyethylene
ROOM
A portion of a space within a building separated by walls or partitions from other similar spaces
Hall
a large room or building for public gatherings or entertainment
Gallery
Long, relatively narrow room or hall
Alcove
A recess or small room connected to or forming part of a larger room
Enfilade
An axial arrangement of doorways connecting a series of rooms to provide a vista down the entire length of the suite
Suite
Connected series or group of rooms arranged to be used together
STRUCTURE
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Pin or hinge joint
Structural connection that allows rotation but resists translation in any direction
Rigid or fixed joint
Structural connection that maintains the angular relationship between joined elements, restrains rotation and translation in any direction
SUSTAINABILITY
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Blackwater
Wastewater produced by toilets and urinals
Graywater
Relatively clean wastewater from dishwashing, bathing, and laundry
Life cycle costing or cradle to grave analysis
Investigation and evaluation of the full range of environmental and social impacts of a given product, including raw material production, manufacture, distribution, use, disposal and all intervening transportation steps.
Embodied energy
all of the energy expended during the life cycle of a material or product.
WALL
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Parapet
Low, protective wall at the edge of a terrace, balcony, or roof
Gable wall
A wall bearing or crowned by a gable
Basement wall
Foundation wall that encloses a usable area under a building
Party wall
A wall used jointly by contiguous structures, erected upon a line dividing two parcels of land, each of which is a separate real-estate entity
Canton
Pilaster projecting from a corner of a building
Pilaster
shallow rectangular feature projecting from a wall having a capital and a base
Engaged column
column built so as to be truly or seemingly bonded to the wall
Return wall
short wall perpendicular to the end of a longer wall
Blind wall
wall with no windows, doorways or any other openings
Dwarf wall
wall less than a full storey in height
Firestop
material or membrane built into a building frme to block a concealed hollow space through which fire might spread
WINDOW
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Oriel
A bay window supported from below by corbels or brackets
WOOD
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Yard lumber
Softwood lumber intended for general building purposes
Certified wood
wood from responsibly managed forests
Ferrule
a metal ring or cap placed around the end of a wooden post or handle to prevent splitting
Glulam or glue laminated timber
Structural lumber product made by laminating stress-grade lumber with adhesive under controlled conditions