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the movement of a group of people from one region to another

mass production

the manufacture of large numbers of goods using identical parts and assembly line methods

assembly line

a line of workers and machines along which a product is moved as it is made


machines controlled by computers

Henry Ford

invented the first motorized vehicle

Amelia Earhart

first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean


a large machine used to harvest crops


a farm or ranch which is combinedwith other businesses, such as food processing

food processing

industry that turns crops and livestock into food products


spend most of one's time doing one kind of job

subsistence farming

to grow only enough food to live

commercial farming

raise crops and livestock for sale


developement of manufacturing industries


a cone-shaped dwelling traditionally made of animal skins and poles used by Native Americans on the Plains


the edge of a settled area

John Deere

- made plows from the blade of a saw
- quickly had a growing business making farming tools

Battle of Little Big Horn

Custer vs. Lakota
Custer was greatly outnumbered
1/3 of soldiers died
often called "Custer's Last Stand"

Cheif Sitting Bull

- important Lakota cheif
- did not want war with the government, but refused to give up the land


a large flat-bottomed boat used to travelon rivers in the 1800s

Conestoga wagon

a study wooden vehicle covered with cloth and drawn by horses. used in 1800s

Abraham Lincoln

- was a settler, as a child, in the middle west 'frontier'
- became President in 1860

Jean Baptiste Point du Sable

- one of the first French traders to settle in the region
- from Haiti (a French colony)
- his trading post would become the city of Chicago

how the government encouraged settlers to move West

sold land to settlers for as little as $1 per acre

why did pioneers move West

- to get away from growing cities
- build new communities

what did they take?

food, grease bucket, hardware, clothing, a few special belongings, furniture, tools

how did they go West?

1. Conestoga wagons
2. flatboats
3. walk
4. horses carrying belongings

what was life like for Pioneers?

- houses made of sod
- share a bed
- no heat
- made own furniture
- ate corn, beans and potatoes

items to prepare a meal?

- corn, beans, potatoes
- cooked over a firepit, or fireplace

George Custer

- US Lieutenant Colonel
- June 1876 led 750 soldiers to the Little Bighorn River (to gather info about area)

Crazy Horse

Lakota war cheif
led warriors to battle with Sitting Bull


- killed buffalo to live (almost their entire economy)
- used all parts of buffalo
- used (wild) horses
- lived in teepees

William F Cody

"Buffalo Bill"
used rifles for killing
sometimes buffalo were killed for only the hide - wasted the meat

Buffalo used for?

-clothing & teepees with hide
- dried meat/ cooked meat
- rope with hair
- arrowhead & needles with the bones
- spoons and headress with horns

What changes occurred during the 1920s?

"talking pictures" (movies)
economy was booming

how has farm ownership changed?

- use of computers
- machine harvesting
- larger farms because of technology
- 1900s - family owned
- now - big company owned

grain elevator

a kind of huge storage bin

make steel from iron

heating iron in a 'furnace' at 3000F it melts, then mixed with oxygen - forms liquid steel - as it cools it becomes solid (steel)


buy goods from another country


sell goods to another country

what 2 time periods was most of the middle west part of the frontier?

- middle 1800s
- late 1800s

Sod houses

- built into a hill
- not permanent

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