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Micro vocab quiz 1
Terms in this set (90)
Organisms that can been seen only in a microscope
Are viruses living organisms?
No. They are usually called infectious particles
Organisms that normally live in and on our bodies
Disease-causing microbes that live in and on our bodies and can cause infection in unusual circumstances
Substance that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes
Father of Microbiology
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
He developed a vaccine to prevent rabies in dogs
when a pathogen colonizes the body causing disease
Microbes make toxins that create sickness (not the microbe itself)
Life only can arise by preexisting life
Kill pathogens in liquid by heating
1. A particular microbe must be found in all cases of the disease and must not be present in healthy animals or humans 2. The microbe must be isolated from the diseased animal or human and grown in pure culture in the lab 3. The same disease must be produced when the microbes from the pure culture are put into healthy susceptible laboratory animals 4. The same microbe must be recovered from the experimentally infected animals and grown again in pure culture
Two or more microbes causing a disease together.
2 or more organisims living together or close association
one symbiont benefits in the relationship while the other is not harmed nor does it benefit
Both organisms benefit from relationship
a relationship between two organisms where one benefits and is detrimental to the other
Factors that influence microflora on human body
pH, hygeine, temperature, location, moisture, competition
Organism that uses oxygen
organism that does not need oxygen
Microbes working against microbes
Using microorganisms to treat various diseases
microbes organize together forming a slime layer and are generally resistant to antibiotics
Two or more organisms work together to create result higher than they would seperately
Complete virus particles that are small and simple in structure
A protein coat around the DNA or RNA of a virus
Small proteins that create the capsid
Viruses that infect bacteria
Causes the destruction of the bacteria cell through lytic cycle
Bacteriophage DNA remains integrated into bacterial cell chromosome, bacterium is not destroyed (lysed)
Destruction of a bacteria cell by a bacteriophage
Bacteriophage multiplication cycle
Attachment, penetration, biosynthesis, assembly, release
Animal virus multiplication cycle
Attachment, penetration, uncoating, biosynthesis, assembly, release
Distinct clusters of virions frequently formed in the nucleus or the cytoplasm of cells that are infected with certain viruses
Causing cancer (for example, as a result of a viral infection)
infectious RNA molecules that cause plant disease
infectious protein molecules that cause disease in animals and human
Round or spherical bacteria shaped
Rectangular or rod-shaped bacteria
Bacteria that are able to exist in a variety of shapes
positive if purple or negative if pink/red or no cell wall
Staining procedure for identifying Gram-variable Mycobacterium (the genus that includes TB)
require atmosphere containing contents of standard room air, esp. oxygen
Microorganisms that require reduced oxygen concentration for multiplication
Microorganisms that can survive with or without oxygen between 0-20%
Microorganisms that can not tolerate oxygen
Microorganisms that grow better without oxygen, but can live with it
Bacteria that grow optimally in environments with high carbon dioxide concentrations
Mechanism, usually another organism, that carries genetic material to a host cell
Bacteria without a cell wall
photosynthesis that produces oxygen
photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen
Toxic chemicals created by photosynthetic organisms
Unicellular heterotrohpic eukaryotes that are mobile
a growing stage in the life cycle of some sporozoan parasites, when they are absorbing nutrients from the host.
thin-walled, hollow organ or cavity containing a liquid secretion; a sac, vesicle, or bladder
cytoplasmic extentions used for locomotion
Form of endocytosis in which the cell invaginates small particles, then fuse those particles with lysosomes in order break them down (hydrolyze).
Protozoans that use a whip like flagella to move
Protozoans that use a large number of hair-like cilia as a means of motility
Long, thin intertwined, cytoplasmic filaments that make up a mould colony.
Collection of hyphae; fungal colony
(In fungi) a spore produced asexually by various fungi at the tip of a specialized hypha.
Toxins produced by fungi
fungal infections in humans
fungal infection of dead tissues (hair, nails)
fungal infection of the skin (dermis)
Fungal infection under the skin (dermis)
A membrane-bound organelle found in the cytopplasm of algal and plant cells
Celluar structures where most of the cells genes are located; eucaryotic chromosomes consist of linear double stranded DNA molecules & proteins
The union of two bacterial cells for the purpose of genetic transfer; not a reproductive process
A type of protoplasm lies outside the nucleus of a eucaryotic cell
Extracellular material that may or may not be firmly attached to the outer surface of a bacterial cell wall; capsules & slime layers are examples
A membranous system located within the cytoplasm of a eucaryotic cell; transport & packaging of secretory proteins also know as Golgi apparatus or Golgi body
An organized layer of glycocalyx firmly attached to the outter surface of a bacterial cell wall; some yeasts are also encapsulated
Flagella- like fibrils that enables spirocheles to move in a spiral helical, or inchworm manner
A bacterium that possesses one flagellum or more than one flagellum at each end (pole) of the cell
A test to help determine if a compound is mutagenic, tested by the reversal of a bacterium's mutation
Pressure exerted on a cell membrane by solutions both inside and outside the cell.
When the concentration of solutes outside a cell is less than the concentration of solutes inside the cell, the solution is hypotonic.
When the concentration of solutes outside a cell equals the concentration of solutes inside the cell, the solution is considered isotonic.
Microbes that grow best at moderate temperatures.
Organisms that prefer cold temperatures.
Organisms that grow best at high temperatures.
Organisms that prefer environments that are acidic.
Organisms that prefer alkaline environments.
Microorganisms that prefer warmer temperatures, but can tolerate or endure very cold temperatures and can be preserved in the frozen state.
When the concentration of solutes in the environment outside of a cell is greater than the concentration of solutes inside the cell, the solution is considerd hypertonic.
Organisms that prefer salty environments; halo=salt and philic=Love --> Salt loving
Recommended textbook explanations
Fundamentals of Biochemistry
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
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