• Generate a differential diagnosis for low urine output and AKI
• Distinguish pre-renal disease from acute tubular necrosis (ATN) using lab values.
• Calculate the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa), knows how to use the FENa in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury, and know its limitations.
• Understand basic pathophysiology and clinical features of the hepatorenal syndrome, rhabdomyolysis and contrast nephropathy.
• Understand the causes of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), the pathogenesis, and the clinical characteristics and phases of ATN, and the outcome of patients with ATN.
• Understand the clinical presentation of allergic interstitial nephritis
• Recognize the patients at risk for NSAID- induced AKI. Knows the glomerular hemodynamic responses that occur with the use of NSAID.
• Understand the glomerular responses that occur with ACE inhibitors.