Unit 1 What is morality

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moral stance
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Terms in this set (42)
three parts of a moral claimdiagnosis, prognosis and basis (or rationale)moral diagnosispart of a moral claim, a judgment of what's right or wrong in a situationmoral prognosispart of a moral claim, a judgment of a proper or best moral response to a situationmoral basis or moral rationalepart of a moral claim, the moral values that support a moral claimethical methoda generic understanding of right / wrong; a kind of moral argument; a way of doing ethicsdeontologyan ethical method that bases morality on the ethical qualities of a person's actionsteleologyan ethical method that bases morality on the pursuit of ethically desirable goalscategorical ethicsa deontological ethical method based in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, popularly described as treating people always as ends themselves and never merely as a means to an endutilitarian ethicsa teleological ethical method, some approaches treat actions as morally right when they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people, other utilitarian approaches establish rules that promote the greatest good for the greatest numbervirtue ethicsa teleological ethical method, right action promotes habits of good moral character and arises from the habits of good moral charactercommon moralityan understanding of right or wrong that applies to multiple cultures and can be used as a basis for the ethical critique of culturecultural relativismthe philosophical claim that because ethics has its basis in culture, cultural pluralism undermines the possibility of ethical criticisms extending beyond a single culturehuman dignitythe innate worth of a human person, Catholic tradition bases its understanding of human dignity on the belief that God creates human beings after God's image and likenesshuman righta moral claim that a person should have a power, or an protection, or an entitlement, simply because a person is humanobjective moralitythe view that morality has a basis separate from what a person wants; morality based in cultural or religious worldviewhumanist ethicsa view of right or wrong based either on an understanding of what it means to be human or on what human beings owe each other because of their humanitynatural lawthe most commonly used ethical method of Catholic tradition; things are judged right or wrong based on what best promotes human happiness and the common goodmoral principlesguides for ethical decision makinguniversal principlesnatural law reasoning treats these highly generalized moral principles as applicable for all people in all circumstances; examples include speak truthfully, sustain human life, treat people justly, promote health, etc.middle axiomsnatural law reasoning uses these moral principles to help people apply universal principles to particular circumstancesconcrete materialsnatural law reasoning uses these moral principles to guide people's actions in particular circumstancesfour sources of Christian ethicsBible, tradition, natural law, and experience; Christian ethics uses these four sources to inform an understanding of objective moralityrevealed moralityan approach to Christian ethics that interprets the Bible (or Bible and tradition) to name guidelines for moral actionrevealed realityan approach to Christian ethics based on the belief that God continues to act in history, the Bible (or Bible and tradition) serve(s) as a guide for discernment of how God is acting and of fitting responses to God's initiativesculturethe symbolic and expressive dimension of social lifecultural scripta way of describing how culture influences agency; people follow scripts like actors in a play; in a given situation, they adapt and adopt a script to guide their actionChrist and Culture Modelsprotestant theologian H. Richard Niebuhr summarizes five different ways Christian theologians have negotiated between their faith and their cultural contextChrist Against Culture ApproachChristians must choose between following Christ or following the values of their cultureChrist of Culture ApproachChrist moves in the world and in culture. So following Christ means aligning oneself with cultural values that align with Christ.Christ Above Culture Approacha culture guides Christians toward their perfection; but Christ allows them to complete this journeyChrist in Paradox With Culture ApproachChrist reveals the depth of human sinfulness (this includes culture) and the need for grace. Christ reveals a culture's tendencies toward self-righteousness.Christ Transforming Culture ApproachChrist guides Christians' efforts to transform their culture so society better serves humanity and better reflects Gospel values.