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PSYC 2 Ch.5: Principles of Learning
Terms in this set (160)
On a variable ________, individuals cannot predict when reinforcement will occur.
schedule of reinforcement
Term for reinforcers that are learned by association: _______ reinforcers.
Which of the following are key concepts in classical conditioning?
1. conditioned stimuli
2. conditioned response
What is the correct sequence of steps that mist take place in shaping?
1. reinforce any behavior that is at all similar to the behavior you want the person learn.
2.Only reinforce responses that are closer to the behavior you want the person to learn.
3.Only reinforce the desired behavior you want the person to learn.
__________ conditioning has occurred when the consequences of an action influence the likelihood that the behavior will be displayed again.
The pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are always reinforced after a set period of time has passed is called a ________.
fixed interval (FI) schedule
Reinforcement of successive approximations of a desired behavior is called _________.
An interval schedule focuses on
the amount of time that passes before reinforcement.
_______ is a relatively permanent change in behavior that is brought about by experience.
By ringing a bell whenever he gave food to his lab dogs, Pavlov eventually got the dogs to salivate to the sound of the bell. In this context the salivation elicited by sound of the bell is called the ________ response.
Recent research shows that watching high levels of media violence will not make viewers more susceptible to acting aggressively.
Define classical conditioning
The form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus is associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic, inborn response.
What is the abbreviation for 'conditioned stimulus'?
The association between a UCS and CS can be extended to include more stimuli (more stimuli related to the CS can elicit the CR). What is this phenomenon called?
Punishment will tend to
reduce the frequency of a behavior
Gloria always gushes when she sees photos of newborns. This is an example of _______ _______.
What is the definition of learning?
A relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience.
An adolescent is practicing her basketball skills and is improving, She is getting better through which of the following influences?
Both nature and nurture influences
______ changes (such as growing physically stronger) must be separated from effects due to practice in order to determine the effectiveness of learning.
Which of the following is the definition of habituation?
Habituation is a sensory process by which organisms adapt to constant stimulation
Which of the following is an example of habituation?
No longer noticing the hum of your refrigerator that once annoyed you.
________ is functional because it encourages us to ignore things that do not provide new information.
Ivan ________ is the researcher who originally described classical conditioning.
What was the purpose of Pavlov's work with dogs?
to investigate the principles of classical conditioning.
You do nothing the first time you hear a loud sound. But, each time you hear that sound you receive a mild electric shock. Eventually you will cringe at the sound, knowing that it predicts that you are about to be shocked. The first time that you heard the sound, it was what type of stimulus?
Because you cringed the first time you saw a bright light, that light cannot be a(n)
When a dog salivates after having food placed in its mouth, the food is called the _______ stimulus.
A learned stimulus is a ________ (conditioned/unconditioned) one, whereas a response to a stimulus that did not need to be learned is known as a ________ (conditioned/unconditioned) response.
Janine is baking chocolate chip cookies and preparing for a party, Her entire apartment smells like cookies. While she is blowing up balloons, she accidentally pops one which makes a very loud noise. Her body jumps when this happens. The next day, when she starts to bake more chocolate chip cookies, she feels very jumpy when she smells the cookies. Which of the following is an example of an UCR?
Feeling jumpy/starting to the sound of the balloon popping.
For classical conditioning to be successful, a neutral stimulus must be presented just before an unconditioned stimulus.
Because you cringed the first time you saw a bright light, the bright light can not be a
You do nothing the first time you hear a loud sound. But, each time you hear that sound you receive a mild electric shock. Eventually you will cringe at the sound, knowing that it predicts that you are about to be shocked. In this situation, the sound is a
Janine is baking chocolate cookies and preparing for a party she is having the next night. Her entire apartment smells like cookies. While she is blowing up balloons, she accidentally pops one which makes a very loud noise. Her body jumps/startles when this happens. the next day, when she starts to bake more chocolate chip cookies, she feels very jumpy when she smells the cookies. Which of the following is an example of an CR?
Feeling jumpy/starting to the smell of chocolate chip cookies
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that does not bring about a response of interest is a ________ stimulus.
What is the abbreviation for 'unconditioned stimulus'?
The stimulus that automatically gives rise to a response is called the _________ stimulus.
'UCR' is an abbreviation for _______ response.
When a dog salivates upon tasting food, the salivation is called the _________ response.
An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response because of its pairing with a stimulus that causes that response is called the
For a neutral stimulus to become a conditioned stimulus, the stimulus must be presented _______ (before.after) the unconditional stimulus for successful conditioning.
In classical conditioning, when is the best time to present the neutral stimulus?
A short time before the UCS
_______ changes (such as growing physically stronger) must be separated from effects due to practice in order to determine the effectiveness of learning.
Chris begins to sweat when he works out. The sweating that occurs in response to exercising is called a(n) _________ response.
Pavlov could by ringing a bell whenever he showed food to his lab dogs eventually get the dogs to salivate just by the sound of the bell. In this context where salivation is elicited by the bell, the sound of the bell is called the _________ ________.
You do nothing the first time you hear a loud sound. But, each time you hear that sound you receive a mild electric shock. Eventually you will cringe at the sound, knowing that it predicts that you are about to be shocked. in this situation, the sound is a
For the neutral stimulus to become a conditioned stimulus, which order is correct during classical conditioning?
The neutral stimulus should be presented just before the unconditioned stimulus.
What is the abbreviation for 'conditioned response'?
The study involving "Little Albert" and the white rat was an experiment that showed _______ could cause the development of fear.
Classical conditioning can explain why a child may develop a phobia of dogs if
the child is bitten by a dog
Even severe psychological disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), can be explained by ________ conditioning.
Classical ________ can apply to negative experiences and feelings.
_______ occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and events.
To produce extinction of a conditioned response, one needs to
end the association between conditioned and unconditioned stimulus
Extinction occurs when:
a CR disappears
The reemergence of an extinguished conditional response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning is known as _________ ________.
Eric believed he had started on the path to eating healthier and smaller portions but when he was confronted with a buffet, he was again prompted to eat as much as he could. This is an example of _______ _______.
When is stimulus generalization most likely to occur?
When two stimulus are highly similar
All of the following can help explain examples of learning.
1. operant conditioning
2. classical conditioning
You cringed the first time you saw a bright light; therefore, the light cannot be a(n)
By ringing a bell whenever he showed food to his lab dogs, Pavlov eventually got the dogs to salivate just by the sound of the bell. In this context, where salivation is elicited by the bell, the sound of the bell is called the:
Nathan has programmed his cell phone ring tone as his favorite song. He always keeps his cell phone in his back pocket. Now every time he hears the same song on the radio, he reaches into his back pocket. The song is an example of a(n) ________ stimulus.
Conditioned taste aversion occurs after a single pairing of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus. This is because learning what foods make you sick
is something humans are biologically prepared for and can be important for survival
Conditioned taste aversion is different from most examples of classical conditioning because taste aversion
requires only a single pairing of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus.
The idea that consequences of a behavior can increase or decrease the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated is referred to as
the law of effect
A chamber with a food dispenser and a response lever used for operant conditioning is called a
A Skinner box is a chamber with a highly controlled environment that was used to study
operant conditioning processes with laboratory animals
Which is of the following BEST illustrates positive punishment?
A parking ticket
Negative punishment is:
the removal of a stimulus to decrease a behavior
When Kristi starts gaining weight, her mom yells at her and tells her that she should go on a diet. This is an example of a ________ punishment.
Which has been shown to impact behavior more consistently, reinforcement or punishment?
Cathy gets hugs and verbal affection from her husband when she cleans the house. This would be an example of _______ reinforcement.
Which of the following is negative punishment?
Taking away TV from a child
Unlike punishment, reinforcement
indicates what to do
Both _______ increase the frequency of a behavior.
positive and negative reinforcement
In ________ reinforcement, the reinforcer is presented every time; whereas in _______ reinforcement, the reinforcer is presented some of the time.
Continuous reinforcement lends itself to both:
rapid acquisition and rapid extinction of behavior
A parent has been giving his child a sticker every time his child washes his hands. He wants to stop reinforcing the child with stickers, but wants the child to continue washing his hands. The best technique for him to use would be to
switch to partial reinforcement
The pattern of reinforcement in which reinforcement follows a set of responses is called a
A ratio reinforcement schedule focuses on
number of responses made before reinforcement
If one is reinforced each time they put the appropriate amount of money in a candy machine, they are on what type of schedule of reinforcement?
In ________ reinforcement, behavior is reinforced some but not all of the time.
The reinforcement schedule that will lead to rapid responding with pauses after each response is
The pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses is a(n)
variable ratio schedule of reinforcement
Which of the following is a variable ratio schedule?
Sam is reinforced every 2-5 times he puts his toys away.
Which reinforcement schedule would most likely lead to high rates of response and resistance to extinction?
If a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus but not in its absence, we would say
that stimulus control training is being used
The pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which the number of responses needed for reinforcement changes is called a
Playing a slot machine and winning money at a specific average for the amount of money you put into it would be an example of a(n) ________-________ schedule.
In _______ _______ training, a behavior is only reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus.
If a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus but not in its absence, we could say
that stimulus control training is being used.
Which of the following are secondary reinforcers?
When two stimulus are sufficiently distinct from one another but one does not provoke a conditioned response when the other does is known as
The pattern of intermittent reinforcement in which responses are reinforced after time periods of different duration have passed is called ________ _______ schedule.
Innate reinforcers that satisfy biological needs (food, water, sex, etc) are called ________ reinforcers
Which of the following are primary reinforcers?
In observation learning, the imitation of behaviors performed by others is called
What is the correct sequence of steps that must take place in shaping?
1. Reinforce any behavior that is at all similar to the behavior you want the person to learn.
2. Only reinforce responses that are closer to the behavior you want the person to learn.
3. Only reinforce the desired behavior you want the person to learn.
A _______ is any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again.
What is the definition of latent learning?
Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it.
When removal of a stimulus in response to a behavior increases the frequency of that behavior, _______ is said to have occurred.
_______ learning theory focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning.
Observational learning is learning that occurs when we:
________ is the process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated.
Positive reinforcement occurs when something that an individual wants _______ in an effort to increase.
is presented to that individual
Positive punishment is:
addition of a stimulus to decrease a behavior
An _______ schedule focuses on the amount of time that elapses before reinforcement is provided.
Learning psychologists suggest that ________ and ________ conditioning share some underlying processes due to evolutionary processes.
classical and operant
On a ratio _______, reinforcement is given based on the number of responses.
schedule of reinforcement
In terms of operant conditioning, things like food, praise, and money are examples of __________.
A mental representation of spatial locations and directions is called a(n) ________ ________.
What is the proper order of the steps involved in behavior modification?
1. Identifying goals and target behaviors
2. Designing a system to record data
3. Selecting a behavior-change strategy
4. Implementing the program
5. Keeping records of progress
6. Evaluating and revising the program as necessary
Behavior ________ is a formalized technique based on operant conditioning that has been used to help people stop smoking and stick to a diet.
Which of the following is a biological constraint to learning?
1. teaching a dog to climb a tree
2. teaching a human to fly
Which of the following contribute to the relationship between exposure to media violence and real-life aggression?
1. exposure to violent media can lead to desensitization to violence
2. exposure to violent media lowers inhibition
In terms of increasing or decreasing behavior, negative reinforcement _______ a behavior whereas punishment _______ it.
Food is an example of a ________ reinforcer, whereas money would be an example of a _______ reinforcer.
In a seminal study on latent learning using rats and a maze, there were three groups of rats: group 1 who wandered around without ever receiving a reward; group 2 who were always rewarded at the end of the maze; and group 3 who wandered for the first 10 days but were then rewarded for completing the maze on the 11th day. The performance of group 3 demonstrated reductions in running time and declines in error rates so cognitive theorists concluded that
the group 3 rats had learned the maze early in their explorations but they did not display their learning until there was incentive to do so.
One's learning ________ is his or her characteristic way of approaching material and is influenced by cultural and ability.
Models who are ________ of behaving in a particular way are more apt to be mimicked than are models who are _________. (punished/rewarded)
________ reinforcement is the removal of a stimulus after a behavior to increase the frequency of that behavior; whereas, _______ reinforcement is the presentation of a stimulus after a behavior.
taking medicine to relieve pain is an example of ________ because it increases the behavior of taking medicine.
Jimmy receives a dollar for every five chores he completes. This is an example of a(n) _______-_______ schedule.
Both positive and negative punishment
reduce the frequency of a behavior
It would be harder to teach a cat rather than a dog to walk on its hind legs due to _________ ________.
Watching ________ in the media, be it on TV or in a video game, is related to actual aggressive behavior.
A _______ signals the likelihood that reinforcement will follow a response.
When Ricardo goes to the casino, he wins money and free dinners occasionally. The money and free dinners would be an example of __________ reinforcement.
A pigeon in a laboratory setting pecks at a yellow disk and, when a blue disk is presented, pecks at that as well. The pigeon is demonstrating
One's learning ________ is his or her characteristic way of approaching material and is influenced by culture and ability.
Emily receives a paycheck every two weeks. This is an example of a(n) ________-_______ schedule.
Pavlov's dogs would salivate at the ring of a bell but not at the chime of a clock. What concept is this an example of?
When you get in your car and sit in the driver seat, the seat belt warning buzzer comes on. When you buckle your seat belt, the buzzer shuts off. The turning off of the seat belt buzzer is an example of
When an organism learns a response to one stimulus and then exhibits the same response to a slightly different stimulus this is called _________ ________.
Andy only asks for his favorite treat when he sees that his mom has gone to the grocery store. This is an example of a(n) ________ _______.
Exposure to media ________ is related to real-life aggression, but exposure to real-life violence is not.
The phenomenon in which an organism learn a response to one stimulus, and then exhibits the same response to a slightly different stimulus is called
Unlike positive punishment, negative punishment
involves removing a stimulus
In the ________ learning style, information is learned best when the fundamentals are understood before the bigger picture is presented.
Stimulus ________ training would be used to help people tell the difference between nonverbal cues that indicate friendliness and nonverbal cues that indicate romantic interest.
Which of the following schedules of reinforcement causes rapid learning?
Taste aversion and other easily learned behaviors typically help an organism to survive. This suggests that biological constraints
have positive evolutionary consequences
According to the idea that people develop characteristic ways of approaching material to be learned, a person with a ________ learning style would want to know the big picture first, whereas a person with a _______ learning style would want to know the fundamentals first.
In the _______ learning style, information is learned best when it is presented as being part of a larger whole.
According to cognitive learning theory, organisms perform behaviors due to
an expectation that the behavior will be followed by a reinforcer.
A college student is having difficulty in his math class, so he goes to the tutoring center for help. He does much better on the next exam, so he begins to go to the tutoring center for help with other classes. This is an example of
_______ neurons are at least partially responsible for the modeling behavior exhibited in observational learning.
In ______ learning, watching the target receive punishment does not affect the learning of the behavior.
A dog only begs for food from the children in the house because it knows the parents will not give her any food. The dog's understanding to get reinforcement from the children is an example of
a discriminative stimulus
Which reinforcement schedule typically produces a steady rate of response that is resistant to extinction?
Which reinforcement schedule typically leads to low response rates with increases immediately before expected reinforcement?
What type of learning was demonstrated in Bandura's "Bobo doll" study?
What learning process is exhibited by the following: In teaching a child to walk, the child is rewarded first for crawling, then for standing up, and then for taking his or her first step.
Which of the following is an example of observational learning?
When a child imitates his mother's actions
Behavior modification would typically be used to
help someone lose weight
Why does considering reinforcers as nothing but rewards oversimplify things?
reinforcers can be positive or negative, rewards are only positive
Unlike classical conditioning, operant conditioning typically involves
In operant conditioning, what does it mean to say a response has been strengthened or weakened?
that responses are more or less likely to occur predictably.
In comparison to variable schedules, fixed schedules tend to produce
pauses after reinforcement
That some behaviors are more likely to be learned than others, and that easily learned behaviors typically facilitate survival, suggests that
biological constraints have positive evolutionary consequences.
If one wants a high rate of responding, one should use which type of schedule?
young children are more likely to respond to analogies in stories than to metaphors because...
Formulating learning objectives for students based on their work in the classroom in order to monitor their progress and adapt instruction accordingly is known as
The most effective approach for learning new words, one that requires little planning or effort is through?
The conditioned stimulus will trigger a conditioned response
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