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APUSH chapter 6
Terms in this set (79)
Which Countries struggled over the North American Continent.
1688-1763, England, France, and Spain, and the Native Americans fought nine world wars. these were fought over the control of Europe and the New world. They were fought in the both hemispheres and the ocean.
The French and Indian Revolution...
set the stage for independence.
During the 1500s France
was struggling due to the foreign wars , violence within the country, which includes the fights between the Roman Catholics and Protestant Huguenots.
1572- thousands of Huguenot men, women, and children were killed.
Edict of Nantes
1598- issued by the crown it granted limited toleration to French protestants. Religious wars stopped and France became the strongest and most feared nation in Europe.
King Louis XIV
Became king at five years old and ruled over France from (1643-1715). Also took an interest in overseas colonies.
What French Empire was built in 1608
Huge Empire of Quebec was built and it commanded the st. Lawrence River.
Samuel de Champlain
A soldier and explorer who was a leading figure in the Quebec empire, his energy and Leadership gave him the title " Father of New France."
Who was Samuel de Champlain allies with?
Champlain allied with the Huron Indian Tribes. He helped fight the Huron's enemies, the Iroquois tribes of upper New York. Champlain's men terrified and killed three (wounded one) Iroquois men.
Effect of Champlain battling the Iroquois Tribe
The Iroquois tribe became Frances' enemy and would restrict the French penetration of the Ohio Valley. The Iroquois would raid French settlements and would serve as allies with the British during the struggle for power over the Continent.
Canada (New France) fell under the direct control of the king after...
Many of the commercial companies failed (companies that sell goods or provides services in exchange for money).
Government of New France (Canada)
Was autocratic, it had one strong leader, and the people elected no representative assemblies, and did not have trial by jury.
Population of Catholic New France
New France population growth was slow. 1750- only 6000 people lived in New France. French government liked their Caribbean island colonies because of the sugar and rum, more than New Frances' snowy wilderness.Very few people immigrated to New France.
Landowning French Peasants
Had no economic motive to move to New France.
Huguenots had religious motives to move to New France but they were not allowed to emigrate.
What were France's valuable resources?
The beaver was an important resource, it was pursued for warmth and aesthetics. Beaver traps were placed across the woods and waterways of North America. 1693 Indian fur flotilla joined the French fur trade.
Coureurs de bois
"runners of the woods"- risky beaver hunters.
Fur trade Cons
1. Indians who worked in the fur trade were killed by the European diseases.
2. Mass beaver hunting went against Indian's religious beliefs.
3. Demonstrated the bad effects of European life on Indian's traditional life style.
4. Beaver population dropped, environmental damage.
Were french Catholic Missionaries. They tried to save Indians for Christ and keep them away from fur-trappers.Some Indians were angry about the missionaries, but some joined. They were important explorers and geographers.
Founded Detroit in 1701. He wanted to prevent the English from pushing into Ohio Valley.
Robert de la Salle
Salle sailed down the Mississippi river in 1682 to check the Spanish presence in the Gulf of Mexico. Named the interior basin Louisiana, and returned 3 years later but failed to find the Mississippi delta. He landed in Spanish Texas in 1687 and was murdered.
How did France try to block the Spanish fro the Gulf of Mexico.
France in 1718 planted several fortified posts in Mississippi and Louisiana, New Orleans was most important.
Mouth of Mississippi River...
was commanded by the outpost if New Orleans, it was a strategic semitropical outpost involved in the fur trade business.
French established forts and trading posts in the fertile area. Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes became gardens of the French North American empire. Lots of grain was floated down the river for shipment to the West Indies and Europe.
King William's War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne's War (1702-1713)
Earliest battles among the European powers for control of North America.
What happened in King William's War and Queen Anne's War?
British colonists fought the risky Beaver hunting French runners of the woods.both sides tried to recruit Indian Allies. Neither France nor Britain believed America was worth sending a formal set of troops over.
Warfare of King William and Queen Anne's Wars.
Lack of formal troops left both sides with the guerrilla warfare of the Indians. The Indian allies of France killed with their torches and tomahawks, and raved the British colonial frontiers, such as Schenectady New York.
Out come of the earliest wars
Spain allied with the French. British failed to win battles against the French in Quebec and Montreal, but seized Port Royal in Acadia.
Peace Treaty of Utrecht 1713.
1. Treaty showed how badly the French and Spanish were beaten.
2. Britain won French populated Acadia, which was changed to New Scotland.
3. They also won Newfoundland and Hudson Bay. These losses destroyed French St. Lawrence settlements. Peace ensued for decades and colonists enjoyed salutary neglect from Britain.
4. Britain won limited trading rights in Spanish America, but issues over smuggling occurred.
British Captain Jenkins
His ear was sliced off by Spanish Revenue authorities. Jenkins carried the ear in a bag and this tale caused Britain to be angry with the Spaniards.
The War of Jenkin's Ear
Broke out in 1739 between Spain and Britain. The war was confined to the Caribbean sea, and James Oglethorpe a philanthropic soldier fought the Spanish.
King George's War
The small scuffle from the war of Jenkin's ear merged with this large scale war of Austrian succession in Europe.
What happened in King George's War?
Spain and France allied and New Englanders invaded New France. With the help of a British fleet, England captured Louisbourg.
Peace treaty of 1748
Louisbourg was given back to France.This made the New Englanders angry and tired of the old world leaders.
Important French fortress on Cape Brenton Island. It commanded the approaches to the St. Lawrence River. Basically bad for the Americans.
Wanted by both the French and the British. it gave France the key that would connect them to North America, if the French wanted to connect the lower Mississippi Valley with Canadian holdings.
British Colonists mid 1700s
became alarmed by the land grabbing French and their trade in Ohio Valley. Britain was ready to fight was continental supremacy and economic security.
British colonial speculators of 1749
these virginians legally bought 500,000 acres of land in the Ohio Valley area . At the same time France was building forts to command the Ohio River.
French fort. Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers joined to form Ohio.
1754 Virginia governor hired Washington to secure Virginian claims. He was sent to the Ohio Country as the leader of 150 militiamen.
What happened on Washington's way to Ohio 1754?
French troops appeared forty miles from Fort Duquesne. Virginia fired the first shots and the French leader was killed.
Battle at Fort Necessity
After the fight near Fort Duquesne French soldiers surround Fort Necessity and Washington's soldiers. Washington surrendered July 1754 10 hrs later.
Deportation of French Acadians
Due to the fighting between the French and the British, the British did not want the French Acadians to betray them. in 1755 Britain deported 4000 French Acadians from Nova Scotia. They scattered to areas as far as Louisiana. The French scattered and French Acadians are now called Cajuns.
French and Indian War
Began in America in 1754. Started by the Ohio Valley struggle by George Washington. For two years the war went on undeclared.
Seven Years War (French and Indian War)
After two years of fighting for an undeclared war the British called official war. They realized that they might lose their colonies. The war was fought in Europe, America, and West Indies, Africa, and Philippines.
French and Indian war allies in Europe
Britain and Prussia against France, Spain, Austria, and Russia.
Frederick the Great
In Germany Frederick repelled the french, Austrian, and Russian army. He was even out number 3:1. London government paid him in gold. France put so much strength into this battle that they could not send troops to America. Thus America was concurred in Germany.
Previous battles Americans lacked unity. Colonist closed to the fighting donated more money and soldiers than colonies far from the fighting.
Albany Congress 1754
British government created the Albany Congress to: (main) achieve colonial unity and strengthen defense against France. 7/13 colonies showed
(immediate purpose): to have good relations with Iroquois Indians. they sent gifts and guns to them.
Join or die
Political Cartoon made by Ben Franklin. It depicts a disjointed snake with the colonies initials in each part.
Ben Franklin's plan
To win the French and Indian war he proposed all the colonies unite and the colonies that do not will die. The Albany delegates adopted the plan but the individual colonies and London did not like it. Colonies believed the plan restricted their independence and London said it gave too much independence. Everybody wanted unity but they were too picky to agree on details.
Beginning of the French and Indian War
British colonists suffered from the opening clashes of the war.
old officer experienced in European warfare. He and British regulars were sent to Virginia.
Capture of Fort Duquesne
1775-He collected supplies from reluctant colonists and he and 2000 soldiers captured Fort Duquesne. The colonial militiamen's Indian fighting methods won the battle.
Braddock's men were moving slowly with heavy supplies and heading west. They encountered a small French and Indian army. The enemies fired on Braddock killing him and routing the British force.
Indian's wild war path down the frontier
Indians were pumped by their victory in Braddock's expedition. they led a war path from Pennsylvania to North Carolina. These areas were defenseless after Braddock's defeat.
Canada Invasion 1756
Britain invaded Canada, they wanted to attack a bunch of exposed wildernesses at once instead of focusing their power on Quebec and Montreal. Britain lost each battle and their supplies became weak.
Why were Quebec and Montreal important in 1750s?
If Quebec and Montreal fell all of the French out posts to the west would fall due to lack of River borne supplies.
"Great commoner" - common people loved Pitt, and they believed in his cause, Pitt was a good orator. 1757 Pitt was the main leader in the London government, he earned title of "Organizer of Victory".
Pitt's best Move
Pitt stopped the attacks on the French West Indies area and concentrated strength on the Canada (Montreal,Quebec) area. Pit chose young energetic leaders, NOT cautious old generals.
Pitt's Expedition 1758
The battle was against Louisbourg, the strong fortress fell to Pitt and Britain cheered over the victory.
An officer since 14, sent soldiers up the cliff towards Quebec. The french and britain armies fought in the morining and Wolfe and Marquis de Montcalm (french commander) died. But the French were defeated and the city surrendered.
Battle of Quebec 1759
Most significant victories of British and American history. MOntreal fell in 1760 and French power fell in Canada.
Treat of Paris 1763
1. French power was thrown out of North America. French was allowed to keep their Sugar islands in West Indies and two islets in the Gulf of St. Lawrence for fishing stations. French had to compensate the Spanish allies by giving trans-Mississippi Louisiana, and the outlet of New Orleans. Spain gave Florida to Britain and Britain gave Spain Cuba. Britain became dominant power.
1713 France gave Canada territory to Britain, Britain told the Acadians to swear allegiance or get out.
The great Displacement "le grand derangement"
1755- Britain expelled allAcadians from region at bayonet point. The Acadians fled to the French colony Louisiana where they planted sugar cane and potatoes and practiced Roman Catholicism and spoke French dialect that became known as Cajun.
Cajun people (Acadians)
Cajun communities were tiny and secluded, and the people were barely influenced by outside forces. Cajuns were tight-knit communities and they kept to themselves. They sometimes married Germans, Spaniards, or English.
1763 French fall
Quebec was taken by British and more French left Canada. 1840 most of the French settled in New England. These French emigrated for the lean harvests prevented by Quebec's short growing season. Also they emigrated to work in New England lumberyards and textile mills.
Restless British Colonists
Britain's colonist gained military confidence and strength. Fighting along the British Regulars they gained experience and officers.
Winning the French and Indian war affected colonists...
The myth that Britain was invincible was shattered after Braddock's bloody disaster , but the war had bolstered colonial self-esteem. During Braddock's disaster colonial militia saw British regulars cower to the Indians attack.
American Militia vs British Regulars
Britain and Colonists did not get along well. Britain refused to recognize any American militia above the rank of Captain. Regulars were condescending towards the militia. Wolfe said that the militia were dirty cowards. American settlers believed they deserved credit for risking their lives to secure the British New World empire.
British stresses towards the Colonists
Colonists lacked support for the cause. Americans use fraudulent papers, and had golden traffic with enemy ports of Spain and France (west indies). Treasonable food trade actually kept the enemies from starving. Britain then forbade he export of all supplies from New England and the middle colonies.
Colonists behaviors during French and Indian war
Colonists refused to provide troops and money for the conflict. They wanted the rights of Englishmen but did not want the duties of Englishmen. William Pitt decided to reimburse the colonies for their expenditures and the colonies were happy.
Inter colonial disunity
disunity was mainly caused by distance, geographical barriers, like rivers, and conflicting religions. Also varied nationalities, different colonial governments ,boundary disputes, and hate against back country settlers against aristocrats.
French and Indian war did create a little unity
Soldiers and statesmen during the war came together at camps and found they had a lot in common. Same ideals, language, and grievances.
Aftermath of French and Indian war
1. No more French = no more need for Britain= colonial independence.
2. France believed that if their empire fell, then Britain would lose their empire.
3. Spanish and Indian presence decreased. Spain was out of Florida. ( still in Louisiana and New Orleans and possessed Western North America)
4. Indians suffered. The removal of France from Canada, made it so the Indians could not play the rival powers against each other. They would have to exclusively negotiate with Britain in the future.
Ottawa chief led several tribes , aided by french traders, in a violent attack to drive the British out of the Ohio Country. They attacked Detroit and overran all 3 British posts west of Appalachians, killing 2000 soldiers and settlers.Britain sent smallpox blankets to Indians, Pontiac dies 1769. Britain realized they needed to stabilized relations with Indians and wanted to make colonists pay for regular troops along frontier.
Proclamation of 1763
After Pontiac's war pioneers felt they were free to venture out past the Appalachian Mountains. But the proclamation prohibited settlement in area beyond the Appalachians. Not to oppress Colonists, but to work out the Indian problem and prevent another Pontiac uprising.
Colonist reaction to proclamation of 1763
American's believed the land taken was their birth right they were angry. 1765 some colonists ignored proclamation and moved into the banned area. Up west.
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