EVR-Exam 4

All of the following, are forms of renewable energy EXCEPT:
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The practice of reducing wasteful or unnecessary energy use is called ________.energy conservationOrganizations like OPEC have formed ________.in order to take maximum advantage of developed nations dependence on imported oilAlaskans benefit from the trans-Alaska pipeline because Alaska's state constitution requires approximately 25% of state revenues associated with the oil industry to be placed into a monetary fund called the Permanent Fund, which ________.pays yearly dividends to all Alaska residentsAll of the following are standard steps at a coal-fired power plant in the United States EXCEPT:carbon captureEfficiency of coal-fired power plants can be nearly doubled by ________.using cogenerationWhat compound that results from hydraulic fracturing can contaminate groundwater?MethaneThe United States and other industrialized nations devote about one-third of their oil use to __________.transportationAlong with many other governmental reforms that began in 1994, the electrical plant just outside Soweto was closed in 2000, and other plants were brought into use. Some parts of Soweto were then wired for electricity. It is estimated, however, that only about 30% of the more than 1.2 million black inhabitants have electricity in their homes; the remainder either cannot afford the costs involved or live in areas that have no electrical access. These inhabitants probably use ________ for fuel.wood and coalThe fact that there is a high sulfur content of the coal burned in South African power plants means that the ________.power plants contribute to acidic depositionThe oil spill resulting from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster ________.is the largest accidental oil spill in world historyWhat is the amount of time that it takes for the radiation in a sample of uranium-235 waste to be reduced by half?700 million yearsFirst developed in the ________, nuclear power showed the most growth during the ________.1950s; 1970s and 1980sWhat are the three fossil fuels that are used today to meet society's needs?Coal, natural gas, and crude oilWhich of the fossil fuels is most abundant on Earth?coalPlant-based organic matter that is compressed under high pressure to form solid carbon structures is known as __________.coalWhich fossil fuel is produced as a by-product that occurs when bacteria decompose organic material under anaerobic conditions?Natural gasWhere does the United States keep an emergency stockpile of oil?LouisianaHow does the burning of coal contribute to acid deposition?Burning coal releases sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.Which of the following is one of the biggest problems with nuclear power?radioactive wasteWhat process is currently used to generate nuclear power?fissionWhy is there little to no growth expected for hydropower?Almost all rivers that can be dammed for power generation have been dammed already.________ strongly influences the amount of energy generated from hydropower.The volume of water released and the height of the fallThe first stage in generating power from a hydrogen fuel cell is to ________.split molecules of hydrogen gas (H2H2) into hydrogen ions (H+H+) and electronsWhich of the following methods would be considered a type of passive solar energy collection?using heat-absorbing construction materialsCompared to the use of fossil fuels for generating electricity, wind energy ________.produces no exhaust pollutants and contributes little to global climate changeUltimately, all biofuels are ________, because they are the product of ________.solar; photosynthesisWhich of these is a major reason that we have used fossil fuels rather than their alternatives?market costs are generally lower for fossil fuels than for their alternatives.The major renewable energy source for electricity in the United States is ________.hydropowerThe United States generates more electricity from ________ than from any other renewable energy source.hydropowerThe smallest amount of electricity generation is from ________.geothermal energySolar power generating facilities that generate electricity at large centralized facilities and transmit that power to homes and businesses through the electric grid are called ________.concentrated solar power facilitiesDesigning buildings to maximize absorption of sunlight during winter and to keep the interiors cool during summer is referred to as ________.passive solar energy collectionThe production and consumption of electricity are most commonly measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). A kilowatt-hour is 1 kilowatt (1000 watts) of electricity produced or consumed for 1 hour. A 10-kW wind turbine can generate about 10,000 kWh annually (enough to power a typical household) at a site such as Spirit Lake, Iowa, with wind speeds averaging 12 miles per hour. The 250-kW turbine installed at the elementary school in Spirit Lake provides about ________ of electricity annually.250,000 kWh... Using wind turbines to produce electricity avoids the production of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, which are the major pollutants ________.in acid rainAs of 2011, the nation leading in generating wind-power is ________.ChinaA major obstacle to the establishment of wind farms near populated and scenic areas is ________.not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) syndromeIn the United States, geothermal energy is most available in ________.the WestThe best locations to install tidal electrical generating stations are places where ________.differences in height between low and high tides are largeThe run-of-river approach to hydropower describes ________.diversion of a portion of a river's flow through pipesPyrolysis is a way of producing ________ from ________.a liquid fuel; biomassBiodiesel is to ________ as ethanol is to gasoline.conventional dieselEthanol made from corn ________.results in higher food prices for corn and corn productsBiofuels ________.can be created by microbial action or burned directly as wood or dungWhat two major economic or global problems could be alleviated if we based our energy on hydrogen?dependence on fossil fuels and climate changeOne difficulty with the process of using hydrogen as a power source is that it ________.requires a substantial energy investment to produce the fuelRecently, how has Germany reduced its dependence on fossil fuels?by utilizing the feed-in tariff systemOf the following renewable energy resources, which one has the highest life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions?BiomassHow is the sun's energy production different from the process in which energy is produced in current nuclear power plants?The sun releases energy through nuclear fusion, whereas our current nuclear power technology releases energy through nuclear fission.Which of the following is one of the three current major drawbacks of solar energy?This resource is intermittent in natureHow is wind energy related to solar energy?Wind energy is the result of the sun's producing wind.What sort of threat does wind energy pose to certain kinds of wildlife?Flying creatures such as birds and bats are killed when they fly into wind turbine blades.What is the ultimate source for geothermal energy?the radioactive decay of elements deep within EarthWhich of the following statements is NOT accurate regarding geothermal power?Geothermal power generators are one of the true fully sustainable energy sources.What sort of process converts the mechanized energy in the ocean into electricity?wave energyHydropower uses the __________ energy of water to generate electricity.kineticIn the United States, approximately how much did the production of ethanol increase between 2000 and 2010?By more than 10 billion gallonsWhile hydrogen energy holds promise, the fact is that hydrogen is an energy __________, not a primary energy __________.carrier; sourceWhat is electrolysis?the splitting of water into component hydrogen and oxygenThe average American generates approximately ________ lbs. of solid waste per day.4.4Which of the following represents the largest waste disposal practice in the United States?landfillsWhat is an abandoned waste site that poses a direct threat to health and the environment, designated to have U.S. government funds applied to its cleanup?Superfund siteWhat is a potential, and likely, drawback to the deep-well injection of hazardous wastes?Well casings can corrode leaking hazardous waste into soil, rock, and gravelOf the following, ________ produce(s) the largest amount of hazardous waste.industryTo safeguard against groundwater contamination, sanitary landfills are ________.lined with plastic and clayThe earthworms, fungi, and bacteria in your compost pile will NOT be happy if you give them ________.plasticIndustrial ecologists ________.redesign industrial systems to maximize physical and economic efficiencyE-wastes are a source of ________.heavy and precious metalsAs of 2014, under the jurisdiction of the EPA, approximately ________% of hazardous sites identified under CERCLA as a national priority have been cleaned up30The EPA is charged with cleaning up brownfields, which are ________.lands whose reuse or development is complicated by the presence of hazardous materialsPlastic ________.from beverage containers is easily recyclable if uncapped, washed, and flattenedWhich of the following is produced by anaerobic decomposition in landfills?methaneLining a landfill with a thick tough plastic barrier is a strategy to address problems related to ________.leachateThe first bottle bills were ________.designed to cut down on litterThe Superfund, established to clean up hazardous waste sites in the United States, is a part of what legislation?The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability ActIn the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics, the metals in the winners' medals were ________.made partly from precious metals recovered from recycled e-wasteWhich of the following represent the categories of hazardous waste?ignitable, corrosive, reactive, and toxic__________ is the process of recovering organic waste through decomposition.CompostingWhat is the difference between the amount of paper within the waste stream before and after recycling/composting?12.3%What is the largest component of the U.S. municipal solid waste stream?Paper and paper productsWhy does the average U.S. citizen create more waste today than 50 years ago?higher rates of consumptionWhat is one problem associated with the incineration of solid waste?hazardous chemicals are often created and released into the atmosphereWhich of the following actions is required for the recycling loop to be successful?Consumers and businesses must purchase products made from recycled materials.What sort of waste is predominantly generated by U.S. industrial facilities?wastewaterWhat is the goal of an industrial ecologist?reduce the waste in industrial systemsWhat sorts of chemical compounds tend to resist decomposition?Synthetic organic compoundsWhich statement about e-waste is accurate?E-waste contains toxic heavy metals that can leach into the environment.Substances that degrade the metals that make up storage tanks or equipment are called __________.corrosives... As an ecological resource manager, your preliminary environmental studies should include inquiry into whether ________.the wetlands include oyster beds and shallow estuaries that are habitats for shrimp, crabs, and fish which are supporting many local industriesWhich of the following consume the bulk of the electricity used in the United States?buildingsWhat are green buildings?buildings constructed out of sustainable materials, which limit the use of energy and water, minimize health impacts, control pollution, and recycle wasteWorldwide, the fastest growing cities today are mostly ________.in developing nations, such as Delhi, IndiaWhich of the following is the most likely reason why it costs less per mile to operate an automobile in a small city than in a large city?People in small cities generally drive shorter distances to and from work and thus less likely to waste fuel while caught in traffic jams.An urban growth boundary (UGB) is intended to ________.provide guidelines for city development to separate areas desired to be urban from areas desired to be ruralA city undergoing gentrification is experiencing ________.the loss of working-class people from traditional neighborhoods as housing prices become too expensivePeople who seek to improve resource sustainability of our cities urge us to ________.use renewable energy sources and recycle materialsPat and Terry are considering moving from near the center of a large city into the suburbs. Which of the following discussion points is valid?It will be easier to have a place for a vegetable garden if they move to the suburbs.How does an urban growth boundary attempt to limit sprawl?by limiting future growth into already urbanized areasWhat is the major factor driving the move to the suburbs from cities?desire to live in less crowded, more peaceful conditionsIn developing nations, such as India and Nigeria, ________.rural people are moving to the cities in large numbersAny consideration of the true costs of sprawl must include ________.increased use of fossil fuelsAir travel, the Internet, cheap fossil fuels, and television all have allowed people to ________.remain connected while living in less centralized locations... Members of several local environmental groups propose that nearly all of the buildings be removed and the area turned into a regional hiking, fishing, and camping area, with very limited vehicle access. This will preserve the natural areas while providing recreation for the city dwellers. The most likely issue raised by opponents is whether ________.revenue generated from users will pay for the changes and the maintenance of such a facilityOf the following, the benefits of green buildings include ________.all of these are benefits of green buildingsCuritiba, Brazil, has shown us that ________.a walkable city center and expanded bus system can solve a large city's traffic congestionWhich of the following is a method that governments use to improve urban transportation?designate lanes as carpool-onlyOregon's strong policy of enforcing UGB's (urban growth boundaries) to create livable cities has been exemplary for many years, but between 2004 and 2007, voters ________.passed a bill giving property owners the right to ignore UGB'sL'Enfant's 1791 Plan of the U.S. capital represented the first ________.thorough city planning programThe operating costs for transportation ________.indicate that, when all operating costs are included, rail is the most sensible means of transportFrom where does the food that most city-dwellers consume originate?farms surrounding the suburbs and from long distances away from the cityIn the study of urban ecology in Baltimore and Phoenix, how do the two cities differ in their citizens' exposure to toxic chemicals?In Phoenix, ethnic minorities are more likely to be exposed to such hazards, whereas in Baltimore, those living in working-class white neighborhoods are more likely to be exposed.From the 1950s to the 1970s many cities experienced a loss in population as people left for the suburbs. Which one of the following is not a factor that led to this migration?People sought out the better public transportation options present in the suburbs.Since 2009, for the first time ever, more people in the world are living in __________ areas than __________ areas.urban; ruralWhat is the greatest negative environmental impact that occurs when people live in suburbs instead of living in cities?Suburbanites take up many times as much space as city dwellers.The birth of __________ initiated the phenomenon of sprawl.suburbsHow do many researchers characterize sprawl?It is characterized as a rate of development that exceeds population growth.What type of specialists have the job of advising policy makers on development, transportation, and parks?city plannersWhich of the following follows the philosophy of "building up, not out"?smart growthWhat is a light rail system?a smaller rail system powered by electricityCities export __________.wastesWhich of the following statements is true regarding sustainable cities?Sustainable cities tend to be livable cities that provide a good quality of life for their residents.While Kayla is driving along a busy highway just outside a major city, she suddenly comes to a standstill in traffic. For the first time ever, she notices that alongside the highway are stretches of forest and wetland. She hears the noise of frogs and insects and birds that she never would have noticed if not trapped in traffic. Why does Kayla never notice these natural wonders on her route? View Available Hint(s)noise pollutionWhich of the following is a positive effect that cities have on the environment?Cities give people places to live with smaller land use.In general, someone living in a highly urban area in the United States (such as New York City), has __________ environmental impact as a person living in a rural part of the United States.Lesser