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80 terms

Psychology Exam 4

STUDY
PLAY
An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting is his or her
Personality
By professional training, Freud was a
Physician
Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients' symptoms
Made no neurological sense
Free association is central to the process of
Psychoanalysis
Forgotten memories that we can easily recall were said by Freud to be
Preconscious
According to Freud, the unconscious is
The thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware
Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams?
Free association
Freud believed that _____ are the "royal road to the unconscious."
Dreams
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
Id
Freud emphasized that the id operates on the ______ principle
Pleasure
Ego is to id as _____ is to ____.
Reality principle; pleasure principle
According to Freud the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
Superego
Freud suggested that the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body known as
Erogenous zones
The Oedipus complex is the term used by Freud to describe
Boys' feelings of guilt and fear of punishment over their sexual desire for their mother
Freud suggested that a boy's identification with his father during the phallic stage illustrates the process of
Conflict resolution
Gene spends a good deal of time bragging about his numerous sexual exploits. Freud would have suggested that gene is fixated at the _____ stage.
Phallic
When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Inge is using the defense mechanism of
Repression
The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called
Projection
While Professor Gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult tests and gave his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to view the professor treatment of students as an example of
Displacement
Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women
Have weak superegos
Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the
Collective unconscious
The Thematic Apperception Test is a(a)
Projective test
Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for
Self-actualization
Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to be highly
Conforming
Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as
Unconditional positive regard
Humanistic theorists have been criticized for
Underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors
Trait theorists are more concerned with ____ personality than with ____ it.
Describing; explaining
Assessing an individual's standing on the Big Five today has the advantage of providing a _____ personality description.
Comprehensive
The Big Five trait dimensions were identified by means of
Factor analysis
Emotional instability is most closely related to the Big Five trait dimension of
Neuroticism
The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of ____ and ____ on behavior
Environments; traits
The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our
Situations
The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social cognitive perspective is to
Bandura
Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with
An external locus of control
Learned helplessness is most likely to promote
Pessimism
Contemporary psychologists are most likely to consider ____ to be of pivotal importance to personality
The sense of self
Overestimating the extent of which others notice and evaluate our appearance and performance is called
The spotlight effect
Jacinda failed her last history midterm. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative on Jacinda's part?
"I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing."
Psychiatrists and psychologist label behavior as disordered when it is
Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional
Ongoing patterns of behavior that are different from those of most other people in your culture are best characterized as
Deviant
Alexis is socially withdrawn and has few close friends. This behavior is most likely to be diagnosed as a symptom of psychological disorder if it is
Preventing her from function effectively
According to the medical model, psychological disorders are
Sicknesses that need to be diagnosed and cured
The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of
The medical model
The medical model of psychologically disordered behavior is most likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
Social circumstances and psychological factors
Some psychological disorders occur primarily I one culture. However, _____ occurs worldwide.
Schizophrenia
Many clinicians diagnose disorders by answering questions from five levels of the
DSM-IV-TR
One facet of the positive psychology movement has been the introduction of a classification system designed to aid in the performance of
Assessing human strengths
Maladaptive behaviors that reduce worry and fear are most indicative of
An anxiety disorder
While he was studying, Matthew was suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of instance apprehensions. For several minutes he felt so agitated that he could not catch his breath. Matthew was most likely suffering from
A panic attack
Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
A phobia
Obsessions are
Offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person
The billionaire aviator Howard Hughes insisted that his assistance carry out elaborate hand-washing rituals and wear white gloves when handling any document he would later touch. His behavior best illustrated the symptoms of
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Two years after being brutally beaten and raped Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid flashbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of
Post-traumatic stress disorder
A person attacked by a fierce dog develops a fear of all dogs. This best illustrates
Stimulus generalizations
Julius is obsessed with avoiding germs and feels compelled to bathe at least 10 times a day. His therapist suggests that Julius continues his maladaptive bathing because this behavior temporarily reduced his anxiety on many past occasions. The therapist's suggestion most directly reflects a _____ perspective.
Learning
Obsessive thoughts typically ______ anxiety and compulsive behaviors typically _____ anxiety.
Increase; decrease
We can more easily extinguish a fear of driving a car than a fear of holding snakes. This is best explained from a ____ perspective.
Biological
During a heated argument with his father, Mike was suddenly unable to move his right arm. Medical examinations are unable to detect a physiological basis for the paralysis. It is likely that Mike suffers from
A conversion disorder
Misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a dreaded disease is indicative of
Hypochondriasis
Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternation personalities is a symptom of a(n)
Dissociative disorder
College students were asked to pretend that they were accused murderers. Under hypnosis, they typically expressed a second personality when prompted to do so by the examining psychiatrist. This most strongly suggest that dissociated identity disorder may involve.
Role-playing
Evidence that many DID patients have suffered abuse as children leads some psychologist to include dissociative disorders under the umbrella of
Post-traumatic stress disorder
The experience of depression _____ risk taking and _____ aggression.
Inhibits; inhibits
For the last month, Gabrielle has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She had withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Gabrielle is most likely suffering from
Major depressive disorder
In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hoelessness and wild overexcitment?
Bipolar disorder
During the manic phase of bipolar disorder, individuals are most likely to
Be overactive
Gender differences in depression are least noticeable among
Preadolescent children
Which perspective suggests that depression is a reaction to loss and the internalization of unresolved anger toward parents
Psychoanalytic
People who suffer chronic depression are at high risk for experiencing
Social rejection
Jabar, a 25-year-old auto mechanic, thinks he is Napoleon. He further believes he is being imprisoned against his will in the psychiatric hospital where his relatives have brought him for treatment. Jabar is most likely suffering from
Schizophrenia
In which type of disorder would a peron's speech likely to be full of unrelated words and phrases that I could be characterized as "word salad"?
Schizophrenia
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are the ____ of inappropriate behaviors, and negative symptoms are the ______ of appropriate behaviors.
Absence; presence
One of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia is
An expressionless face
Schizophrenia that develops rapidly, seemingly as a reaction to stress, is called ____ schizophrenia.
Acute
Evidence suggests that prenatal viral infections contribute to
Schizophrenia
Those with narcissistic personality disorder are likely to be preoccupied with
Their own self-importance
Antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
A lack of guilt feelings
The famous test introduced by Hermann Rorschach asks test-takers to respond to
Meaningless inkblots
Sasha believes that the questions on school tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates
An external locus of control
Inanna suffers from chronic depression. According to the social-cognitive perspective, how is she likely to respond when told that she performed very poorly on a test she took the previous day?
"I'm academically incompetent and always will be."