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Terms in this set (47)
a pathological category defined as physical disruption of living tissue by an outside force.
5 specifics that can help investigators
1. First, and probably most important, they are interested in any trauma that occurred at or around the time of death since this may provide evidence as to the cause and manner of death.
2. the force that caused the trauma is of interest.
3. the number of wounds is important
4. with multiple traumas, the sequence of wounds may yield information on circumstances surrounding the death
5. the placements of wounds are significant because they can help determine the manner of death and the location of an attacker in homicides.
Trauma occurs as a consequence of several factors including but not limited to:
Motor vehicle accidents
two primary subjects that forensic anthropologists are sometimes called upon to help law enforcement agencies determine in order to make a positive identification in a forensics case
1. cause and manner of death
2. timing of death
In making determinations on the cause and manner of death and estimation of the timing of death, forensic anthropologists must
examine the remains for any signs of trauma, determine when the trauma occurred in relation to the time of death, and which type of trauma occurred based on the type and number of wounds present, and whether or not the wounds contributed to the cause of death or if the wounds show signs of healing prior to death.
Determining cause and manner of death is not the legal responsibility nor is it in the purview of a forensic anthropologists job.
forensic anthropologists job
The only responsibility that falls under their job duties is to provide information from the skeleton related to cause and manner death to medical examiners and coroners who can use the information to make these determinations.
trauma to the back during an attack is indicative of
Blunt force trauma
any injury resulting from a blow from wide instruments that have either a flat or a round surface (any direction, (usually) dynamic speed, wide focus)
sharp force trauma
generally is caused by an implement with a point or edge (compression direction, dynamic speed, narrow focus)
have characteristics of both blunt force and sharp force trauma, the results of projectiles impacting on bone generally are complete discontinuities with both displacement and fracture lines (compression and shearing direction, dynamic speed, narrow focus)
forces that do not fit into one of the preceding types usually are placed in a miscellaneous category, these include trauma that caused by static pressure (strangulation most common), generalized dynamic pressures (explosion), sawing, and trauma due to chemicals and heat.
when a sufficient force is applied to bone, a discontinuity (i.e. break) will occur. If the discontinuity travels completely through the bone, it is called a fracture.
if a discontinuity is incomplete, the term infraction is used.
when surfaces that were once continuous no longer meet or meet at an unnatural angle
where broken ends of the bones are separated from each other
an infraction where part of the fractured area is still attached to its original bone
infractions in bones where separation between the broken ends does not occur
common breaks resulting from falls (broken arm)
refers to breaks that result in the production of multiple fragments of bone, these are more common in death by violence, including homicide.
fracture lines: radiating lines
the most common form of fracture lines; these disperse outward, like an irregular sunburst, from the area of applied force, the center of radiation indicates the point of impact of the causative force
fracture lines: hoop
most common in high-velocity projectile wounds; forms concentric rings around the area of impact; are caused by the inward and outward bending of the surface of the bone
stress fractures (pathological)
breaks caused by overuse
fatigue fractures (pathological)
occur in bones that are exposed to intermittent stress over a long period of time (most common in older people in the vertebrae)
skeletal trauma results from
application of force
Bone fractures understood as the effects of
forces and physical properties of bones
load per unit area
change in dimension, deformation
deformation of the bone due to longitudinal stress, almost exclusively in children aged 2-5, produced by numerous microfractures on the concave surface of the bone with an intact cortex on the convex surface, most common in forearm and may affect radius and ulna
temporary (reversible) elongation of tissue when a prolonged force has been applied
defined as the ratio of stress to strain within the proportional limit; it represents the stiffness of a material within the elastic range when tensile or compressive loads are applied
stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object
A force that pushes on or squeezes a material.
act of twisting
a combination of stretching and compression
stress that pushes a mass of rock in opposite directions
sudden stress, that is, delivered powerfully and at high speed, most common form of fracturing force, generally delivered by a bludgeon, knife or projectile
refers to stress that is applied slowly, force starts low and builds to the point where the bone breaks, few if any fracture lines; most common injury is breaking of the hyoid bone during manual strangulation
the force is applied to a single point or a thin line; any pointed or sharp-edged instrument will deliver force to a narrow focus
indicates that the force is delivered over a large area of bone; breaks over a considerable percentage of the bone area; generally caused by any mechanism other than a cutting or chopping instrument
direction of force directly down on the bone, when this happens both compression and tension is occurring at the same time as force being applied. causes notch of bone to be broken out.
Perimortem trauma (at or time of death)
observe and record force that causes trauma, number of wounds, sequence of trauma and location of trauma.
formation of new bone (callus develops)
condition of absence of teeth in both jaws; resorption of bone in both jaws causes the puckered appearance of mouth before death, degree of bone resorption can indicate amount of time since teeth were lost or pulled
before death, shows various signs of healing
around the time of death, does not show healing
after death, no healing caused by humans or natural forces
color difference, dry break
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Exam 1-Clemson Weisensee ANTH/BIOL 3530
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