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student, householder, forest dweller, wandering ascetic

four stages of life


stage of life from puberty to marriage; learning


stage of life from marriage to first grandson; career and raising family

forest dweller

stage of life from first grandson until fully detached from the world; separated self from life and world in order to detach

wandering ascetic/sannyasin

stage of life after detachment in forest dweller stage; forest dweller is ready to return to society, but remains separated from the social distractions of life

bliss of moksha, harmony with dharma, material success, sensual pleasure

four goals of life

bliss of moksha

goal of life that is the most fulfilling; meditation and detachment from this life

harmony with dharma

a goal of life when a person follows their dharma perfectly

material success/artha

goal of life dealing with pursuit of wealth and power

sensual pleasure

least fulfilling goal of life - pursuit of physical/emotional pleasure


Are the four goals of life all accepted as valid goals?

Because people have different talents and strengths

Why are there three paths to liberation?

to be active, to gain knowledge, to experience emotional attachment

the three different tendencies of the human person

For the active, karma marga

What is the first path? Hindu name?

in accordance with dharma

How does one live his life in the first path?


What is the attitude of one in the first path?

For the philosophical, jnana marga

What is the second path? Hindu name?

learning, meditation

The path of jnana marga involves heavy _ and _.

Brahmin class

Who most practices the path of jnana marga?

true nature of reality

What knowledge is sought after?

finding Brahman within yourself

What does inward journey mean?

beyond knowing the subject matter; you don't know reality, you experience it. you live it.

What is the difference between knowing about something and experiencing it? How does it relate to reality?


a school of philosophy most faithful to monism

cosmic illusion; you're not in an actual world

What did Shankara say about maya?

for the emotional, bhakti marga

What is the third path? Hindu name?

direct energy on good works instead of being focused on yourself

What does "directs spiritual energy outward through worship" mean?

shrines, sacred fire, clay figurines

items of hindu household


Do Hindus worship clay idols?

to conduct ceremonies and festivals

role of the priest

it is given a funeral and destroyed because that is the cycle of life

What happens to the life-size image of a god after a festival? Why?


pilgrimages are a type of _

Ganges River

Most sacred river to Hindus; washing in river cleanses all sin


what do cows represent?

they provide a lot

why are cows seen as a mother?

even though it is a secular state, religion is very important

what does the state of india look like to the hindu person?

doesn't enforce religion

what is a secular state?

following man

what does patriarchal mean?

a woman's dharma requires her to be obedient to men

what does a woman's dharma do?


burning of widows; outlawed in 1829


medieval Hindu philosopher; taught that all things are maya

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