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Pharmacology 2

Terms in this set (1699)

Uses-Saw palmetto is a tree use to make medicine. It is mostly used for decreasing symptoms of an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hypertrophy-BPH). It is also used to prevent complications from prostate surgery and other types of prostate conditions. It has a suggested use for treating baldness in men and women.

Research has shown that taking 320 mg of saw palmetto daily for two months before prostate surgery can reduce the time spent in surgery, blood loss, the development of problems during surgery, and the total time spent in the hospital. However, taking 160mg for 5 weeks prior to surgery did not lower the risk for problems.

Side effects and Safety-Saw palmetto is likely safe for most people when taken by mouth for up to three years. Some people have reported dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea. Some people have reported that it causes impotence. There is some concern that saw palmetto may cause liver or pancreas problems. However, these side effects do not seem to occur anymore often with saw palmetto than with a sugar pill and not enough information to know if it causes these side effects.

Saw palmetto is likely unsafe when taken by mouth during pregnancy or breastfeeding. It acts like a hormone, and this could be dangerous to the pregnancy. Saw palmetto might slow blood clotting. There is some concern that it might cause extra bleeding during and after surgery. Stop using saw palmetto at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Saw palmetto is possibly safe when administered into the rectum appropriately for up to 30 days. It is not known if its safe to use longer.

Interactions- It has a moderate interaction with birth control pills. It may decrease the effectiveness of birth control pills. Some medications that slow blood clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. These medications include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, etc.), Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, etc.), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, etc.), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin) and others.
Indications for us it treats/prevents: Hawthorn can be used for countless purposes mainly for treatment. Studies shows that is is used for a disease of the heart, and blood vessels such as congestive heart failure, chest pain, and irregular heartbeat. It can also be used to treat both low blood pressure and high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and high cholesterol. Hawthorn can also be used for the digestive system, regarding indigestion, diarrhea, and stomach pain. The herb can be used to reduce anxiety and be used as a sedative to increase urine output and for menstrual problems. Hawthorn can also be used to treat tapeworms and intestinal infections. Some people utilize hawthorn and apply it to the skin for boils, sores, and ulcers.
Hawthorn is possibly safe for short term use (up to 16 weeks). It is not known if hawthorn has been successful as a long-term use.
Adverse effects: Taking hawthorn can cause nausea, upset stomach, fatigue, sweating, headache, dizziness, palpitations, nosebleeds, insomnia, and agitation.
Interactions: This herb cannot be taken with digoxin (Lanoxin) because it can increase the effects of digoxin and increase the risks of side effects. It can not be taken with any blood pressure medication because it can cause your blood pressure to decrease. Males can't take hawthorn and any medication for sexual dysfunction because it may cause your blood pressure to go too low. Lastly, this herb can't be taken with any medication that increases the blood flow to the heart (nitrates) because it may increase the chance of dizziness and lightheadedness. Interacting Hawthorn with drugs may lead to toxic levels of cardiac glycosides (e.g., digitalis).
Nursing implications: For pregnant and breast feeding: not enough tests have been conducted to know to see the effects of hawthorn during pregnancy or while breastfeeding therefore patient should stay on the safe side and avoid the use. If client has a heart condition and is taking any heart medications avoid the use of hawthorn. Preoperative patients should avoid using this herb 2 weeks before surgery because hawthorn may slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Always monitor for any unusual or adverse effects while taking Hawthorn including therapeutic effects.

Depression, anxiety, nervousness, heart palpitations, mood disturbances associated with menopause, Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), Seasonal Affective Behavior (SAD), Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS), and Social Phobia.

May cause insomnia, vivid dreams, restlessness, dry mouth, dizziness, fatigue, and headaches.

Agitation, irritability, Gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhea, severe skin rash
May decrease effects of alprazolam, amitriptyline, oral contraceptives, cyclosporine, imatinib, irinotecan, NNRTIs, phenytoin, protease inhibitors, tacrolimus, warfarin, benzodiazepines, valproic acid, phenobarbital, immunosuppressants, sympathomimetic amines, tyramine-containing foods, opioids, digoxin, estrogens, HIV drugs, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, zolpidem and other hypnotic drugs, theophylline, triptans, dextromethorphan, loratadine, cetirizine, fexofenadine.
May cause addictive serotonergic effects with antidepressants, paroxetine, sertraline, and tramadol.


St. John's Wort is contraindicated in patients with bipolar depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and dementia.
Do not take St. John's Wort without medical advice if you regularly use other medications. Avoid sun exposure while taking this drug, for product can make you sunburn more easily. This drug can affect fertility. You should avoid taking this drug if you are trying to get pregnant. St. John's Wort may harm an unborn baby. Do not use this product without the medical advice if you are pregnant. This product can also pass through breast milk and cause unwanted effects while breastfeeding. Should not be given to children under the age of 6, but permitted (under medical supervision) for children and teens (6-17 years of age). St. John's Wort should be taken for 4-6 weeks and if condition persists, new evaluation and medications should be considered.
Kava also known as Kava Kava is used for it's herbal use to relieve stress and anxiety and to help boost sleep. Kava is known to have an euphoric effect that compares to drinking alcohol.
People can mix Kava with boiled water to create a tea or take the tablet form.
Indications for use: Kava is used to encourage sleep and relieve anxiety. Researchers suggest the use of Kava to help treat symptoms or side effects of anxiety disorders. Kava is also used to help induce sleep. Kava has anxiolytic effect and for this reason people use it as an alternative to help with sleep disorders.
Adverse effects: Researchers suggest that Kava may cause liver damage. Symptoms include fatigue, nausea, jaundice, abnormal enzyme levels, rash and fever. Long term use of Kava in high doses can cause dry, scaly skin, yellow skin, heart and eye problems.
Interactions: Kava interacts with alcohol, consuming both alcohol and Kava could increase a person's risk of developing liver damage. Kava also interacts with other drugs such as benzodiazepines and anti-depressants. For this reason people should consult their doctor's before using Kava.
Nursing Implications: Little research has been done on the use of Kava in women who are pregnant. Until more research is conducted, Kava should be avoided in pregnant women. Kava has been banned in several countries not including the U.S. Kava is known to cause possible liver damage so people should try alternative therapies to treat anxiety disorders and improve quality of sleep.
Herb: Echinacea (herbal supplement)
Indications: used as a treatment for common colds, herpes simplex infection (topical), immunostimulant, psoriasis (topical), upper respiratory infection (viral), Urinary Tract Infection, vaginal yeast infection, skin wounds (topical), skin ulcers (topical).
Contraindications: autoimmune disorders, HIV/AIDS, leucosis, multiple sclerosis, tuberculosis, collagen diseases; hypersensitivity to Asteraceae/Compositae plants, chrysanthemums, daisies, marigolds, ragweed.
Adverse effects: Using echinacea for more than 8 weeks could damage your liver or suppress your immune system. Herbalists do not recommend Echinacea if you are taking medicines known to affect your liver. Possible interference with or counteraction to immunosuppressant drugs and antivirals. Exercise caution with autoimmune disease. Risk of altered fertility, diarrhea, nausea/vomiting.
Interactions: Tizanidine: Echinacea may significantly increase pharm actions of Tizanidine. Rasagiline: Echinacea may increase plasma concentrations of rasagiline. Beclomethasone (inhalant).
Nursing implementations: The registered nurse should be aware that Echinacea stimulates increased activity of the immune system. Clients with autoimmune disorders should avoid using this. The nurse should encourage the client to tell the health care provider about any other medications or dietary/herbal supplements the client chooses to use. This will help to prevent possible drug interactions. The nurse should also be aware of contraindications for this herbal supplement. The nurse should encourage any female patients to consult their health care provider regarding pregnancy since there is no known information regarding the use of Echinacea during pregnancy or breastfeeding.
Indications for use: Glucosamine is most commonly used to provide relief pain and improve joint function for those with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and joint pain. Glucosamine is stated to have further uses but has not been proven with adequate research such as heart disease, knee pain, multiple sclerosis, stroke, jaw pain, glaucoma, interstitial cystitis, temporomandibular joint disorder, and weight loss.
Adverse effects: Glucosamine is mostly safe in adults but can cause the following side effects: nausea, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, drowsiness, skin reactions, headaches, and hyperglycemia.
Interactions: Glucosamine has a MAJOR interaction with Warfarin. It may enhance the anticoagulant effects of warfarin. Glucosamine may also cause an increase in insulin resistance, which results in the need for higher dosages of oral hypoglycemics or insulin. Glucosamine may also decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy medications such as etoposide, teniposide and doxorubicin Lastly, it may decrease the effectiveness of acetaminophen.
Nursing implications: Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take glucosamine since there is not enough research to support its safe use. People who are allergic to shellfish should not take glucosamine since the supplement is derived from crabs, shrimps and the shell of lobsters. Stop taking glucosamine at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery as it may impact the body's ability to regulate blood sugar. Monitor pain and range of motion periodically while taking glucosamine.
Back Ground: Aloe or Aloe Vera is a perennial plant that belongs to the Liliaceae family. Aloe Vera has been used medicinally since 1500 BC primarily for skin integrity and the healing process. Queen Nefertiti and Cleopatra used it daily as part of their beauty regime. Aloe has at least 75 different compounds that include 20 different Amino Acids, 20 minerals, vitamins and water.
Medicinal use: Several Studies have shown that Aloe Vera can inhibit a Thromboxane, which is an inhibitor of wound healing. By inhibiting this it greatly increases the wound healing process and reduces inflammation along cuts and burns. There is also Magnesium Lactate that comes from Aloe that can block histamines that trigger itchiness and skin irritation. This can be used to further prevent against skin breakdown such as pressure ulcers. When Aloe is taken, it helps synthesis the collagen in the body by changing its chemical composition to increase the cross-linking effects and increases wound healing. Additionally, mucopolysaccharides along with amino acids and zinc present in Aloe Vera can lead to skin integrity, moisture retention, erythema reduction, and helps to prevent skin ulcers.
Dosage routes: Topical, liquid gel capsule, tincture, liquid
Positive Effects of Aloe Vera: treats wounds, psoriasis, mouth sores, ulcers, diabetes herpes, bedsore and burn wounds. It is known for its anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, skin protection, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, antiseptic, and wound healing properties
Adverse Effects: Hypoglycemia, can sometimes cause stomach cramps and pain, liver problems, Bloody urine, low potassium, weight loss, heart disturbances.
Drug Interactions: There are no known drug interactions at this time associated to Aloe Vera.
Do not take : if you have GI disturbances (orally), appendicitis (orally), liver/kidney disease (orally) or peptic ulcer disease (orally)