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239 terms

ap psych ch 12-17

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emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience
James-Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion
two-factor theory
Schachter-Singer's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
right frontal lobe
the area of the brain which people experiencing negative emotions or depression show increased activity
left frontal lobe
the area of the brain in which people experiencing positive moods show increased activity
nucleus accumbens
the cluster of neurons that lights up when people experience pleasure
polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes)
personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, acting and feeling
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarassing
psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
unconscious
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
object relations theorists
contemporary psychologists who presume that our early childhood relations with parents, caregivers, and everything else influence our developing identity, personality and frailties
identification
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
fixation
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
Oedipus complex
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred toward his father
Electra complex
the female version of the Oedipus complex
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
erogenous zone
according to Freud, a distinct pleasure-sensitive area of the body on which the id's energies focus during psychosexual stages
superego
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
ego
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
id
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives; operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
latency
the psychosexual stage in which, according to Freud, sexual feelings are repressed
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defence mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings and memories from consciousness
defence mechanisms
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
regression
psychoanalytic defence mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defence mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites
projection
psychoanalytic defence mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
rationalization
defence mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
displacement
psychoanalytic defence mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
neo-Freudian
pioneering psychoanalysts who revised Freud's ideas to place less emphasis on sex and aggression and more on the conscious mind's role in interpreting experience
inferiority complex
Adler's idea that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority, feelings that trigger our strivings for superiority and power
preconscious
according to Freud, an area in which we store thoughts, feelings and memories from which we can retrieve them into conscious awareness
4-5
the age (in years) at which the superego characteristically develops
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
the psychosexual stages, in order of development
Adler
this neo-Freudian emphasized social, rather than sexual, tensions of childhood, and said that much of behavior is driven by the need to overcome feelings of inferiority
Horney
this neo-Freudian questioned the male bias in Freud's theory, such as the assumptions that women have weak egos and suffer "penis envy"; also emphasized social tensions
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
psychodynamic theory
the contemporary theory that much of our mental life is unconscious, that we often struggle with inner conflicts among our wishes, fears and values, and that childhood shapes our personalities
projective test
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Thematic Apperception Test
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
implicit learning
learning without conscious awareness of what is learned
terror-management theory
proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
self-actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
self-concept
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who am I?"
trait
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
personality inventory
a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening questions
empirically derived test
a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion
the "Big Five" of personality traits, arranged by the textbook's mnemonic
conscientiousness
this personality trait increases during peoples' twenties
agreeableness
this personality trait increases from people's thirties to their sixties
person-situation controversy
the issue of whether human behavior is influenced more by inner disposition or external environment
social-cognitive perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
Bandura
psychologist that proposed the social-cognitive perspective
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
internal locus of control
the perception that one controls one's own fate
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
learned helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
attributional style
our characteristic manner of explaining negative or positive events
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
possible selves
the concept that we have visions of the self we dream of becoming and those we fear becoming
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
self-esteem
one's feelings of low or high self-worth
self-serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
defensive self-esteem
this type of self-worth is fragile, focuses on sustaining itself, is vulnerable to criticism, and correlates with aggressive and anti-social behavior
secure self-esteem
this type of self-worth is less fragile, less contingent on external evaluations, and enables us to focus beyond ourself
450 million
the number of people worldwide that suffer from psychological disorders
psychological disorder
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
medical model
the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy
Philippe Pinel
one of the earliest advocates of the medical model and humane treatment of the mentally ill
depression, schizophrenia
two major disorders that are universal regardless of culture
DSM-IV
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is constantly tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
panic attack
a minutes-long episode of intense fear
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
phobia
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
social phobia
an intense fear of being scrutinized by others
obsessive-compulsive disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
post-traumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
agoraphobia
fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable when panic strikes
post-traumatic growth
the phenomenon that challenging crises often lead people to later report an increased appreciation for life, more meaningful relationships, increased personal strength, changed priorities, and a richer spiritual life
anterior cingulate cortex
the area of the brain in which people with OCD show hyperactive brain activity
dissociative disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts and feelings
dissociative identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities; also called "multiple personality disorder"
mood disorders
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes, including major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder
major depressive disorder
a mood disorder in which the person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
mania
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive ,wildly optimistic state
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
dysthymic disorder
a condition between temporary blue moods and major depression - a poor mood that fills most of the day, nearly every day, for two years or more
norepinephrine, serotonin
the two neurotransmitters that depressed patients show low levels of
omega-3 fatty acid
another substance that people with depression have been observed to have lower levels of; found in fish, walnuts, etc
left frontal lobe
the area of the brain that is less active in depressed people
stable, global, internal
the terms in which depressed people tend to explain bad events
schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized y disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perception, and inappropriate emotions and actions
delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
selective attention
many psychologists attribute the disorganized thinking of schizophrenia to a breakdown in the capacity for this
flat affect
a zombielike state of apparent apathy
paranoid
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity
positive symptoms
in schizophrenia, the presence of inappropriate behaviors
disorganized
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion
catatonic
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by immobility (or excess, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another's speech or movements
undifferentiated
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by many and varied symptoms
residual
subtype of schizophrenia characterized by withdrawal, after hallucinations and delusions have disappeared
negative symptoms
in schizophrenia, the absence of appropriate behaviors
behavioral medicine
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
health psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
stress
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
stress reaction
physical and emotional responses to stress
Cannon
the physiologist who confirmed that the stress response is part of a unified mind-body system
epinephrine, norepinephrine
the stress hormones whose release is triggered by stress
fight or flight
our adaptive response to stress, including sympathetic nervous system arousal, increased heart rate and respiration, dulled pain, and sugar and fat released from body stores
glucocorticoids
stress hormones such as cortisol that are secreted by the outer part of the adrenal gland as part of the stress response
Selye
the psychologist who discovered the general adaptation syndrome
general adaptation syndrome
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages - alarm, resistance, exhaustion
alarm
stage one of the general adaptation syndrome; the sudden activation of the sympathetic nervous system
resistance
stage two of the general adaptation syndrome; temperature, blood pressure and respiration remain high, and there is a sudden outpouring of hormones
exhaustion
stage three of the general adaptation syndrome; occurs when stress deplete body's reserves
telomeres
short pieces of DNA at the ends of chromosomes that are abnormally short in stressed people
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries
Type A
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
plaque
scarlike masses formed by cholesterol deposits on artery walls
atherosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
psychophysiological illness
literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches
hypochondriasis
misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes from the bone marrow, which release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes that form in the thymus and attack cancer cells, viruses and foreign substances
macrophage
another agent of the immune system that identifies, pursues and ingests harmful invaders
placebo
a treatment with no biochemical effect
coping
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive or behavioral methods
problem-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress directly - by changing the stressor or the way we interact with the stressor
emotion-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
aerobic exercise
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety
biofeedback
a system for electronically recording, amplifying and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
spontaneous remission
the natural disappearance of many diseases
complementary and alternative medicine
unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies
relaxation response
Benson's term for the ability of experienced meditators to decrease their blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption and raise their fingertip temperature
faith factor
the phenomenon that religion and health are correlated
psychotherapy
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
biomedical therapy
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
eclectic approach
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
psychotherapy integration
an approach to therapy that attempts to combine methods into a single, coherent system
resistance
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
interpretation
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
transference
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love of hatred for a parents)
psychodynamic
a type of therapy influenced by Freud in which therapists try to understand a patient's current symptoms by focusing on themes across relationships, and may talk to the patient face-to-face
interpersonal psychotherapy
a brief variation of psychodynamic therapy that focuses on symptom relief in the here and now, rather than past hurts or personality change
client-centered therapy
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth
nondirective therapy
a therapeutic strategy in which the therapist listens without judging, interpreting, or directing the client toward certain insights
active listening
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates and clarifies; a feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
behavior therapy
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
counterconditioning
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning
exposure therapies
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
Wolpe
the therapist who developed the technique of systematic desensitization
systematic desensitization
a type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
progressive relaxation
relaxing one muscle group after another until achieving a drowsy state of complete relaxation and comfort
virtual reality exposure therapy
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders or public speaking
aversive conditioning
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
token economy
an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting the desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
behavior modification
reinforcing desired behaviors and witholding reinforcement for or punishing undesired behaviors
cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
stress inoculation
training that teaches people to restructure their thinking in stressful situations
cognitive-behavior therapy
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
family therapy
therapy that treats the family as a system; views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
regression toward the mean
the tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back toward their average
Eysenck
the British psychologist who opened the debate over the effectiveness of psychotherapy
meta-analysis
a procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
seasonal affective disorder
a wintertime form of depression
therapeutic alliance
the emotional bond between therapist and client
psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
antipsychotic
a class of drugs, such as chlorpromazine, that calm psychotic patients
tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors
antianxiety
a class of drugs, such as Xanax, that depress central nervous system activity
antidepressant
a class of drugs, such as Prozac, that lift people out of depression
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
a class of antidepressants, such as Prozac, that slow the synaptic vacuuming-up of serotonin
lithium
a simple salt that can be an effective mood-stabilizing drug for those suffering from bipolar disorder
electroconvulsive therapy
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
psychosurgery
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
lobotomy
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
motivation
a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal
instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
arousal theory
this theory of motivation emphasizes the urge for an optimum level of stimulation
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
Maslow
the psychologist who developed the hierarchy of needs
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hungry
insulin
a hormone secreted by the pancreas, which diminishes blood glucose, partly by converting it to stored fat
hypothalamus
a small but complex neural traffic intersection where messages from the stomach, intestines and liver signalling hunger are integrated
lateral hypothalamus
electrical stimulation in this brain area brings on hunger
orexin
the hunger-triggering hormone emitted by the lateral hypothalamus
ventromedial hypothalamus
electrical stimulation in this brain area depreses hunger
ghrelin
a hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach
leptin
a hunger-dampening chemical that is secreted by fat cells
PYY
a digestive hormone that suppresses appetite
set point
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
serotonin
the calming neurotransmitter emitted after consuming carbohydrates
neophobia
our tendency to avoid novel foods
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Kinsey
the biologist who provided the first widespread research on sexual practices
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
the four stages of the sexual response cycle, in order
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
estrogen
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones; both males and females have it, but additional levels in males stimulate growth of male sex organs in fetus
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex
erotic plasticity
the phenomenon that sexual orientation is less strongly felt and potentially more changeable among women than men; also that women's sexual desires are more changeable
fraternal birth-order effect
the phenomenon that men who have older brothers are somewhat more likely to be gay
3-4
the percent of men that are exclusively homosexual
1-2
the percent of women that are exclusively homosexual
anterior commissure
a section of this brain area is one-third larger in homosexual men than in heterosexual men
ostracism
a method of social exclusion which is used worldwide to control social behavior
anterior cingulate cortex
a brain area in which people experiencing social ostracism experience increased activity; also associated with physical pain
flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
psychological contract
the subjective sense of mutual obligations between workers and employers
industrial-organization psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisement, and development
organizational psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
interviewer illusion
the phenomenon that interviewers often overrate their discernment in selecting employees
structured interview
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
halo error
a bias in performance appraisal that occurs when one's overall personality, or a specific trait, biases ratings of their specific work-related behaviors
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people or ideas; for attaining a high standard
grit
passionate dedication to an ambitious, long-term goal
implementation intentions
action plans that specify when, where and how people will march toward achieving their goals
task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
great person theory of leadership
an outdated leadership theory that assumes all great leaders share certain traits
transformational leadership
leadership that motivates others to identify with and commit themselves to the group's mission
voice effect
the phenomenon that if employees are given a chance to voice their opinion during a decision-making process, people will respond more positively to the decision