Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Ch. 4,8 APES
Earth Systems and Resources
Terms in this set (105)
the innermost zone of Earth's interior, composed mostly of iron and nickel. It includes a liquid outer layer and a solid inner layer.
the layer of Earth outside of the core, containing magma
located in the outer part of the mantle and is composed of semi-molten, ductile rock
The outermost layer of Earth, including the mantle and crust.
the chemically distinct outermost layer of the lithosphere
a place where molten material from Earth's mantle reaches the lithosphere
The theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
Sum of the processes that build up and break up lithosphere
One plate sinking under another plate
A vent or fissure in the Earth's surface through which magma and gases are expelled
A plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.
The formation of new ocean crust as a result of magma pushing upward and outward from Earth's mantle to the surface.
an area where plates move toward one another and collide
transform fault boundary
an area where tectonic plates move sideways past each other
a fracture in rock caused by a movement of Earth's crust
the frequency and intensity of earthquakes experienced over time
a large expanse of rock where a fault has occurred
The sudden movement of Earth's crust caused by a release of potential energy along a geologic fault and usually causing a vibration or trembling at Earth's surface.
The exact point on the surface of Earth directly above the location where rock ruptures during an earthquake.
A scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves.
a series of waves that form when a large volume of ocean water is suddenly moved up or down
the geologic cycle governing the constant formation, alteration, and destruction of rock material that results from tectonics, weathering, and erosion, among other processes.
rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
intrusive igneous rock
igneous rock that forms when magma rises up and cools in a place underground
extrusive igneous rock
rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface
a crack that occurs in rock as it cools
rock that forms when sediments such as muds, sands, or gravels are compressed by overlying sediments
a rock that forms when sedimentary and igneous rocks change under heat and pressure without melting
the mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals
the breakdown of rocks and minerals by chemical reactions, the dissolving of chemical elements from rocks, or both
precipitation high in sulfuric acid and nitric acid from reactions between water vapor and sulfur and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere
the physical removal of rock fragments from a landscape or ecosystem
the underlying rock material from which the inorganic components of a soil are derived
The loss of some or all of a soil's ability to support plant growth
a horizontal layer in a soil defined by distinctive physical features such as texture and color
The organic horizon at the surface of many soils, composed of organic detritus in various stages of decomposition
the most fully decomposed organic matter in the lowest section of the O horizon
frequently the top layer of soil, a zone of organic material and minerals that have been mixed together.
Also known as topsoil.
A zone of leaching, or eluviation, found in some acidic soils under the O horizon or, less often, the A horizon
A soil horizon composed primarily of mineral material with very little organic matter
The least-weathered soil horizon, which always occurs beneath the B horizon and is similar to the parent material.
cation exchange capacity
the ability of a particular soil to absorb and release cations
the proportion of soil bases to soil acids, expressed as a percentage
The average concentration of an element in Earth's crust
a concentrated accumulation of minerals from which economically valuable materials can be extracted
an element with properties that allow it to conduct electricity and heat energy, and to perform other important functions
in resource management, the known quantity of a resource that can be economically recovered
the removal of strips of soil and rock to expose ore
unwanted waste material created during mining including mineral and other residues that are left behind after the desired metal or ore is removed
open pit mining
a mining technique that uses a large visible pit or hole in the ground
a mining technique in which the entire top of a mountain is removed with explosives
the process of looking for minerals, metals, and precious stones in river sediments
Mining techniques used when the desired resource is more than 100 m (328 feet) below the surface of Earth.
The average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
The short-term conditions of the atmosphere in a local area, which include temperature, humidity, clouds, precipitation, and wind speed.
the layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth's surface
The layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere, extending roughly 16 to 50 km (10-31 miles) above the surface of Earth.
the percentage of incoming sunlight reflected from a surface
The maximum amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature.
the cooling effect of reduced pressure on air as it rises higher in the atmosphere and expands
the heating effect of increased pressure on air as it sinks toward the surface of the earth and decreases in volume
latent heat release
the release of energy when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water
Atmospheric convection current
global patterns of air movement that are initiated by the unequal heating of Earth
A convection current in the atmosphere that cycles between the equator and 30° N and 30° S.
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
The latitude that receives the most intense sunlight, which causes the ascending branches of the two Hadley cells to converge
A convection cell in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60° N and 60° S and sinks at the poles, 90° N and 90° S.
A convection current in the atmosphere that lies between Hadley cells and polar cells
the deflection of an object's path due to the rotation of Earth
a region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side
A large-scale pattern of water circulation that moves clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere
the upward movement of ocean water toward the surface as a result of diverging currents
an oceanic circulation pattern that drives the mixing of surface water and deep water
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
A reversal of wind and water currents in the South Pacific causing warmer ocean temperatures in the eastern Pacific Ocean
La Nina Effect
a change in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which the surface water temperature becomes unusually cool
A geographic region categorized by a particular combination of average annual temperature, annual precipitation, and distinctive plant growth forms on land
an aquatic region characterized by a particular combination of salinity, depth, and water flow
an area where a particular species in nature
A cold and treeless biome with low-growing vegetation.
an impermeable, permanently frozen layer that prevents water from draining and roots from penetrating
A forest biome made up primarily of coniferous evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons
a coastal biome typified by moderate temperatures and high precipitation
temperate seasonal forest
A biome with warm summers and cold winters with over 1 m (39 inches) of precipitation annually.
a biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters
temperate grassland/cold desert
A biome characterized by cold, harsh winters, and hot, dry summers.
a warm and wet biome found between 20 degrees N and 20 degrees S of the equator, with little seasonal temperature variation and high precipitation
Tropical seasonal forest/savanna
a biome marked by warm temperature and distinct wet and dry seasons
A biome prevailing at approximately 30° N and 30° S, with hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, and sparse vegetation.
the shallow zone of soil and water in lakes and ponds where most algae and emergent plants grow
a zone of open water in lakes and ponds where rooted plants can no longer survive
a region of water where sunlight does not reach, below the limnetic zone in very deep lakes
Describes a lake with a low level of productivity
Describes a lake with a moderate level of productivity
Describes a lake with a high level of productivity
Aquatic biomes that are submerged or saturated by water for at least part of the year, but still support species of plants that can live in wet soils.
A marsh containing nonwoody emergent vegetation, found along the coast in temperate climates.
an area along the coast where freshwater of rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean
A swamp that occurs along tropical and subtropical coats, and contains salt tolerant trees with roots submerged in water
the narrow band of coastline between the levels of high tide and low tide
The most diverse marine biome on Earth, found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline.
A phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white.
deep ocean water, located away from the shoreline where sunlight can no longer reach the ocean bottom
The upper layer of ocean water in the ocean that receives enough sunlight for photosynthesis
The deeper layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis
A process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide.
Sets with similar terms
Apes Chapter 4-Global climates and Biomes
AP Environmental Science Chapter 4
APES Chapter 4: Global Climates and Biomes
Chapter 4 Key Terms
Other sets by this creator
Ch. 19, 20 APES
Ch. 14, 16 APES
Ch. 15 APES
Ch. 12, 13 APES
Other Quizlet sets
Realism HB Erin and Taylor
Patho/Pharm Chapter 58: Focus no seizure disorder
Demand Supply GA ECON-2302 Summer 16