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Ch. 10, 11 APES
Land and Water Use
Terms in this set (76)
Tregedy of the Commons
the tendency of a shared limited resource to become depleted if it is not regulated in some way
the cost or benefit of a good or service that is not included in the purchase price of that good or service
maximum sustainable yield (MSY)
the maximum amount of a renewable resource that can be harvested without compromising the future availability of that resource
resource conservation ethic
The belief that people should maximize use of resources, based on the greatest good for everyone.
A U.S. classification used to designate lands that may be used for recreation, grazing, timber harvesting, and mineral extraction.
a dry open grassland primarily used for grazing cattle
land dominated by trees and other woody vegetation and sometimes used for commercial logging
a method of harvesting trees that involves removing all or almost all of the trees within an area
The method of harvesting trees that involves the removal of single trees or a relatively small number of trees from among many in a forest.
ecologically sustainable forestry
an approach to removing trees from forests in ways that do not unduly affect the viability of other trees
a large area typically planted with a single rapidly growing tree species
A fire deliberately set under controlled conditions in order to reduce the accumulation of dead biomass on a forest floor
national wildlife refuge
a federal public land managed for the primary purpose of protecting wildlife
National wilderness area
An area set aside with the intent of preserving a large tract of intact ecosystem or a landscape.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
A 1969 U.S. federal act that mandates an environmental assessment of all projects involving federal money or federal permits.
Environmental Impact Statement
A detailing of a proposed policy's environmental effects, which agencies are required to file with the EPA every time they propose to undertake a policy that might be disruptive to the environment.
environmental mitigation plan
A plan that outlines how a developer will address concerns raised by a project's impact on the environment.
Endangered Species Act
a 1973 U.S. act designed to protect species from extinction
any area surrounding a metropolitan center, with a comparatively low population
an area similar to a suburb, but unconnected to any central city or densely populated area
The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
degradation of the built and social environments of the city that often accompanies and accelerates migration to the suburbs
Highway Trust Fund
A U.S. federal fund that pays for the construction and maintenance of roads and highways.
The phenomenon in which increase in the supply of a good causes demand to grow.
A planning tool used to separate industry and business from residential neighborhoods.
A zoning classification that allows retail and high-density residential development to coexist in the same area.
A set of principles for community planning that focuses on strategies to encourage the development of sustainable, healthy communities.
A person or organization with an interest in a particular place or issue.
sense of place
The feeling that an area has a distinct and meaningful character
Transit-oriented development (TOD)
Development that attempts to focus dense residential and retail development around stops for public transportation, a component of smart growth.
a principle that grants government the power to acquire a property at fair market value even if the owner does not wish to sell it
The condition in which not enough calories are ingested to maintain health
Having a diet that lacks the correct balance of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.
A condition in which people have access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life.
a condition in which people do not have adequate access to food
The condition in which food insecurity is so extreme that large numbers of deaths occur in a given area over a relatively short period.
deficiency of iron
the ingestion of too many calories and improper foods, causes a person to become overweight
livestock or poultry consumed as food
Agriculture that applies the techniques of mechanization and standardization to the production of food
the fossil fuel energy and human energy input per calorie of food produced
A shift in agricultural practices in the twentieth century that included new management techniques, mechanization, fertilization, irrigation, and improved crop varieties, and resulted in increased food output
economies of scale
The observation that average costs of production fall as output increases.
A form of soil degradation that occurs when soil remains under water for prolonged periods.
A form of soil degradation that occurs when the small amount of salts in irrigation water becomes highly concentrated on the soil surface through evaporation.
fertilizer composed of organic matter from plants and animals
fertilizer produced commercially, normally using fossil fuels (also known as inorganic fertilizer)
An agricultural method that utilizes large plantings of a single species or variety
A substance, either natural or synthetic, that kills or controls organisms that people consider pests.
a pesticide that targets species of insects and other invertebrates that consume crops
A pesticide that targets plant species that compete with crops.
broad spectrum pesticide
a pesticide that kills many different types of pests
A pesticide that targets a narrower range of organisms.
A pesticide that remains in the environment for a long time.
A pesticide that breaks down rapidly, usually in weeks or months.
a trait possessed by certain individuals that are exposed to a pesticide and survive
A cycle of pesticide development, followed by pest resistance, followed by new pesticide development
Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO)
A large indoor or outdoor structure designed for maximum output
the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants
a commercially harvestable population of fish within a particular ecological region
The decline of a fish population by 90 percent or more.
The unintentional catch of nontarget species while fishing
An agricultural method in which land is cleared and used for a few years until the soil is depleted of nutrients.
a process where repeated trampling by humans, machinery, or animals causes a compaction of soil and a reduction of pore space
the transformation of arable, productive land to desert or unproductive land due to climate change or destructive land use
Feeding herds of animals by moving them to seasonally productive feeding grounds, often over long distances
Agriculture that fulfills the need for food and fiber while enhancing the quality of the soil, minimizing the use of nonrenewable resources, and allowing economic viability for the farmer.
An agricultural method in which two or more crop species are planted in the same field at the same time to promote a synergistic interaction.
An agricultural technique in which crop species in a field are alternated from season to season.
An agricultural technique in which trees and vegetables are intercropped
An agricultural technique in which plowing and harvesting are done parallel to the topographic contours of the land
A plant that lives for multiple years.
An agricultural method in which farmers do not turn the soil between seasons, used as a means of reducing erosion
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
An agricultural practice that uses a variety of techniques designed to minimize pesticide inputs
the production of crops in a way that sustains or improves the soil, without the use of synthetic pesticides or fertilizers
Individual transferable quota (ITQ)
A fishery management program in which individual fishers are given a total allowable catch of fish in a season that they can either catch or sell.
Recommended textbook explanations
Holt McDougal Environmental Science
Karen Arms, Michael R. Heithaus
Environmental Science: Sustaining Your World
G. Tyler Miller, Scott E. Spoolman
Eldon D. Enger
Eldon D. Enger
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