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Terms in this set (76)
- 28th president
- Key role at Paris Peace Conference
Goals for Woodrow Wilson
- Lasting peace
- to avoid US troops having to fight on European soil
Wilsons goal for the LON
To prevent further wars
Problems for Wilson
- He was not realistic
- His Allies had different agendas.
- Did not understand divide between France and Germany
- US senate refused to ratify the TOV
- Suffered a stroke in 1920 while going around America to win support for his ideas
- Signed in 1924
- A set of recommendations to tackle Germany's post-1918 economic problems
What did the Dawes Plan attempt to tackle?
Hyperinflation and the collapse of the German economy in 1923
What three measures did the Dawes Plan call for?
Reduction in reparations, reorganisation of the German currency and international loans to German
Was the Dawes Plan a success?
In a limited way, it gave Germany superficial and temporary relief from its debt problem but it was mostly a failure as Germany fell apart following the Wall Street Crash (1929)
In what ways was the Dawes Plan a turning point?
It marked the beginning of changing attitudes towards Germany and opened the way for German economic recovery.
What was the Locarno Treaty?
An international agreement confirming the territorial changes made to Germany by the Treaty of Versailles in 1925
Main points of the agreement at Locarno
To respect each other's borders and not to go to war if a dispute or a conflict arose
What countries were involved in the Locarno Treaty?
Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy. Poland and Czechoslovakia were pledged French support in event of dispute with Germany
What role did Britain and Italy play in the Treaty of Locarno
They agreed to make sure the terms were not broken
Ways in which the Locarno Treaty contributes to the German recovery
It removed many of the suspicions between Germany and its neighbours. It paved the way for German entry to the League of Nations in 1926
How did the Locarno pact end?
Hitler broke the Treaty in 1936 when he remilitarized the Rhineland. The other signatories, then preoccupied with the Abyssinian War, limited their response to formal protest
What was the Abyssinian War?
It was a conflict that developed in 1935-1936, which followed the Italian invasion of the East African state of Abyssinia (Ethiopia)
Why did Mussolini invade Abyssinia?
To create an empire modelled on Ancient Rome, to increase his popularity and to avenge an earlier defeat in 1896
Name the Abyssinian leader
What was the response of the international community to Italian aggression in the Abyssinian War?
The League of Nations condemned Italy but did nothing to prevent the Italian race to win the war
Was there anything the League could have done to discourage Mussolini in the Abyssinian War?
Yes. It could have closed the Suez Canal or banned oil sales to Italy
What did the Abyssinian War prove about the League of Nations?
The lack of a coherent international response to the Italian invasion revealed the flawed notion of collective security
What was the Ruhr?
Ruhr is an important manufacturing region in Germany, occupied by the Belgian and French troops in 1923
Why did the French and Belgians march into the Ruhr?
The German economy was in ruins, and it could not afford to pay reparations; the French and Belgians wanted to take control of the Ruhr
List three consequences of the Ruhr occupation for the German people
- Rising unemployment
- Fewer goods in the shops
- Skyrocketing prices
What was the outcome of the Ruhr Occupation?
The occupying forces left after weimar leader Gustav Stresemann resumed reparation payments using the new Rentenmark currency.
What happened to the Ruhr Occupation?
The occupation was condemned by the British and US governments and brought little real benefit to the French, further undermined the Weimar Republic, and contributed to the Beer Hall Putsch
What was the Young Plan?
An attempt to reduce and restructure German reparations payments
Where did the Young Plan get its name?
It was named after the US financer who wanted to address the fact that Germany had not made any payments since 1921
Why did the Young Plan ultimately fail?
Stresemann died soon after the plan was published; when the Nazis came to power, Hitler stopped all reparation payments
Name three other agreements set up by the Europeans in the 1920's to remove potential threats to peace
The Dawes Plan 1924. The Locarno Treaty 1925. The Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928.
What was the Chanak Crisis?
It was an Anglo-Turkish dispute that brought the two countries to the brink of war in 1922
What were the causes of the Chanak Crisis?
Britain and Greece backed the Turkish sultan against Turkish nationalists wanting to overthrow the Treaty of Sevres. The subsequent nationalist victory over the Greeks made south-eastern Europe vulnerable to Turkish invasions
Who was Mustafa Kemal Ataturk?
A Turkish officer who led the nationalists against the sultan as Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founded the Turkish republic and was a president of Turkey, 1923-1938
What prevented all-out war between Britain and Turkey during the Chanak Crisis?
It was only 4 years after the end of the First World War. Few people in Britain or the Dominions wanted war.
How was the Chanak Crisis resolved?
British forces were outnumbered and surrounded by the Turks t the port of Chanak. Both sides eventually agreed to a truce
What did the Chanak Crisis show?
That the road to peace and stability would be far more difficult and unrealistic than imagined.
What was the Acerbo Law?
An electoral law that paved the way to Mussolini's consolidation of power in 1923
State the main provision of the Acerbo Law
The party that won the most votes in a national election gained two-thirds of the seats in the Italian Parliament
What did Mussolini claim the result of the seats show?
The popularity of his party
What finalised Mussolini's power?
When the leader of the Italian socialists, Matteoti, was murdered a month after the election, Mussolini's hold on power was cemented.
What was the March on Rome?
A fascist-inspired legend of the way Mussolini took power in Italy
Why did Mussolini order the March on Rome
He wanted to take advantage of the state of near civil war that existed in 1922 after the fascists helped break a general strike
The March on Rome was a real gamble for Mussolini. Explain why.
It was possible that the army would defend Rome against the fascist rebels. In the end the army was ordered to stand aside.
What did Mussolini gain from the March on Rome?
King Vistor Emmanuel chose Mussolini as the next prime minister rather than face civil war
Was Mussolini's power obtained through force?
While he did resort to the threat of violence if he did not get his way, Mussolini was handed power rather than seizing it.
What was the Hawley-Smoot Tariff?
Signed in 1930, it is a law that raised duties on foreign imports into the United States
Which President signed the Hawley-Smoot tariff and why
President Herbert Hoover because he wanted to protect US business and industry following the Wall Street Crash
By how much were taxes on foreign goods raised during the Hawley-Smoot tariff?
Why was the Hawley-Smoot Tariff controversial?
Hoover agreed to it despite warnings from prominent economists that it might have a negative impact on the USA's relations with other countries
Did the Hawley-Smoot Tariff help or harm international trade?
Harm. It only made it more difficult for debtor countries to earn the dollars necessary to repay their US loans and further undermined international trade.
How was the Hawley-Smoot tariff recieved to the rest of the world?
It was a desperate policy that sent out the wrong messages, namely that the USA was trying to be the world's banker, food producer and manufacturer while buying as little as possible in return.
What was the Geneva Protocol?
An attempt to strengthen the League of Nations by giving the Covenant "more muscle", in 1924
Who was the driving force behind the Geneva Protocol?
British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
How was it intended to strengthen the protocol?
It defined an aggressor nation as any country that refused to accept arbitration
Which body did the Geneva Protocol authorise to settle disputes through arbitration?
The Permanent Court of International Justice
Give two reasons why the Geneva Protocol came to nothing
Ramsay MacDonald lost power the same year. The new British government did not want to be compelled to accept the League's decisions. Demonstrating how national self-interest took priority over international cooperation.
Name the strengths of the League of Nations.
- By 1930, there were 58 members
- Effective at resolving small conflicts
- Improvements in medicine
Name the weaknesses of the League of Nations.
- Had to deal with the negative impacts of TOV
- Germany and Russia were not members.
- No army = no direct interception
- Aims were too ambitious.
Name the aims of the League of Nations.
- Stop possible or future wars.
- Encourage self-determination
- Improving working conditions
- Improving social conditions
What was the organisation of the League of Nations like?
- Assembly meetings once a year
- Council meetings when needed (crisis)
- Secretariat (paperwork)
- Court of International Justice
What were the main reasons for WWII?
- The tension within Europe
- Resentful Germany
- Nazi Party (Hitler)
- Failure of LON
- Invasion of Poland
How did countries feel about the treaties after the war?
Many countries wanted revision of their treaties. Japan and Italy were extremely dissatisfied with theirs, but most dissatisfied was Germany.
How did most Germans feel about the Treaty of Versailles?
Most Germans wanted to reject the TOV as they did not agree with the territorial losses, disarmament, war guilt and reparations. The discontent originated from the "stab in the back" myth.
Key political effects of the Great Depression
- People criticised governments- especially in democracies
- Economic and political problems meant countries turned to dictators
- Countries like Japan, Italy and Germany decided to expand into other countries, threatening the peace.
- The breakdown of trade led to lots of international tension
Great Depression effects on US
- 13 million unemployed
- Anger towards Republicans under President Hoover
- Hoover's tax cuts and support for banks failure to help
- The Republicans lost presidency in 1932
Great Depression effects on Germany
- the new Weimar government broke down between 1929 and 1933
- people moved to extremist groups such as the Nazis for a promised better life
Great Depression effects on Italy
- Mussolini wanted to take people's mind off of economic problems by increasing the Italian power abroad
- He wanted to recreate the glory of the Roman Empire
Great Depression effects of Britain
- Democracy survived
- 3 million unemployed
- Extreme groups like Oswald Mosley Blackshirts became popular in some areas (poor areas) (Fascists)
Great Depression effects on France
- The effects hit France later than most countires, when theu could not sell their luxury products like cheese and wine
- Over 1 million unemployed
- Extreme political groups becoming important
Great Depression effects on Japan
- SIlk was a luxury food and it didn't sell therefore Japan's economy suffered
- Invade and take other countries' resources
- The army was extremely influent
Name the two major failures of the League of Nations
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria and The Italian invasion of Abyssinia.
How did the LON fail at the invasion of Manchuria?
- It showed Eurocentric nature of the LON
- SHowed that the LON was weak in the face of aggression
- Encouraged further aggression
- Japan withdrew from the League and moved closer to Hitler and Mussolini
- Allowed Italy and Germany to see the possibility of their territorial ambitions
How did the LON fail at the invasion of Abyssinia?
- Both Britain and France needed Mussolini's friendship against Hitler so didn't interfere
- League imposed economic sanctions, failing to include essential commodities like oil and coal
- League members failed at putting internationalism in front of national affairs
What did the invasion of Abyssinia and Manchuria prove for Hitler?
That the LON was incapable of retaliation in the face of aggression and that his vision for Germany and the destruction of the TOV would be far easier than he had hoped
What were Hitler's first measures when in power?
- He walked out of the DIsarmament Conference in 1933
- He disagreed that Germany's armed forces should be restricted by the TOV
- Removed Germany from the LON
- LON defended the TOV. Hitler wanted to destroy it.
What were Hitler's second measures when in power?
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