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process of chewing


breakdown of food molecules into their individual components


the act of swallowing


process of contraction and relaxation of circular smooth muscles which pushes food thru the alimentary canal

gastric juice

acidic secretion of the stomach


the hole in the center of a tube


nutrients body needs in large amounts-carbs,fats,proteins


nutrients body needs in small amounts-vitamins & minerals

what keeps food from going down into your larynx?

1)the soft palate rises up and closes off nasal cavity
2)larynx rises & epiglottis lowers to seal off larynx

what digestive enzyme is found in saliva?

Amylase which helps breakdown starch into maltose

what is soft palate's function in deglution?

it rises up and closes off the nasal cavity

what are the tunics that are contained in most of the alimentary canal?

serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa. stomach has an extra layer oblique muscularis

what digestive enzyme is secreted by stomach?


what does pepsin do?

breaks down proteins into peptides

why doesn't gastric juice in stomach hurt stomach lining?

gastric glands produce mucus which coats stomach lining and protects it from its own gastric juices

what is the role of intrinsic factor?

allows for absorption of vitamin B12 by small intestine

what 3 things are absorbed thru the stomach?

water, alcohol, aspirin

what are the effects of the hormone gastrin?

increases lower esophageal sphincter tone
decreases pyloric sphincter tone
increases rate of secretion from gastric pits
increases rate of mixing waves of stomach

what are the 3 regions of the small intestine?

duodenum, jejunum, ileum
duodenum is the smallest portion

what features in intestine increase the rate at which nutrients are absorbed?

circular folds and intestinal villi covered w/microvilli

what are the 3 main hormones released by small intestine?

secretin, cholecytokinin (CCK), Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP)

what is the effect of secretin?

reduces gastric juice from production & increases secretion of acid-neutralizing juice from pancreas which increases ph of chyme

what is the effect of cholecytokinin (CCK)?

causes gallbladder to contract

what is the effect of gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)?

decreases rate at which stomach empties

list the major enzymes in the intestinal juice

maltose, sucrase, lactase, peptidase, enterokinase

what does maltase do?

breaks down maltose

what does sucrase do?

breaks down sucrose

what does lactase do?

breaks down lactose

what does peptidase do?

breaks down peptides

what does enterokinase do?

activates trypsinogen into tryposin

why can't a cell produce an active enzyme which breaks down proteins?

cause producing an active protein-digesting enzyme would kill the cell

what functions do the bacteria in the large intestine perform?

produce vitamin K, biotin, folic acid

why do people feel they need to defecate shortly after eating?

the act of filling the stomach triggers mass movements which rapidly move chyme towards rectum

what travels from the portal triads to the central vein in a liver lobule? what flows the opposite way?

blood travels from portal triad to the central vein. bile flows the opposite way

is bile a digestive enzyme? what does it do?

bile is NOT a digestive enzyme. it emulsifies fats, making them easier to digest

which organs produce amylase?

salivary gland and pancreas

what 4 secretions are designed to reduce acidity in alimentary canal?

1. alkaline mucus from duodenenal glands 2. intestinal juice from intestinal glands 3. bile from gallbladder 4. bicarbonate in pancreatic juice

what are the fat soluble vitamins?

vitamins A,D,E,K

what role do most vitamins play in the body?

regulate chemical process in the body

which two vitamins can the body absorb without eating food that contains those vitamins?

vitamin D,K

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