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Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize


Tracheal systems for gas exchange are found in this organism

countercurrent exchange mechanism

The phenomenon that increases the gas exchange efficiency of fish gills

the volume of the thoracic cavity increases

Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inspiration

The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases

occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs

The sodium-potassium pump of neurons pumps

Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell

After an action potential, resting potential restored

by the opening of voltage-sensitive potassium channels and the closing of sodium activation gate

Saltatory conduction

a term applied to conduction of impulses along myelinated nerve fibers

Synaptic vesicle

discharge their contents by exocytosis at the presynaptic membrane


part of the vertebrate nervous system is most involved in preparation for the "fight-or-flight" response

telencephalon region of the brain

It is the brain region most like that of ancestral vertebrates, develops as the neural tube differentiates, develops from the midbrain, and divides further into the metencephalon and myelencephalon.


controls the heart rate


produces hormones that are secreted by the pituitary gland


coordinates muscle actions


regulates body temperature


can be applied to any organism with a digestive system

fluid feeders

The ticks you might find attached to your dog are best described as these


digestive processes requires enzymes


the stage where a substance must cross a cell membrane to actually enter the body,


has a gastrovascular cavity

Specialized regions are possible

advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity


smooth muscle contractions that move food through the alimentary canal


the substrate of salivary amylase


where adigestive juice with a pH of 2 probably came from

small intestine

Most nutrients are absorbed across the epithelium of this


used accurately to describe absorbed nutrients


long cecum can be found in these types of animals

Cows are able to survive on a diet consisting almost entirely of cellulose due to

cellulose-digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in their rumens

uric acid

main nitrogenous waste excreted by birds


Organisms categorized as osmoconformers


most marine invertebrates are correctly described as this

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