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31 terms

Concepts Biology exam 4

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diffusion
Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize
insect
Tracheal systems for gas exchange are found in this organism
countercurrent exchange mechanism
The phenomenon that increases the gas exchange efficiency of fish gills
the volume of the thoracic cavity increases
Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inspiration
The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases
occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs
The sodium-potassium pump of neurons pumps
Na+ out of the cell and K+ into the cell
After an action potential, resting potential restored
by the opening of voltage-sensitive potassium channels and the closing of sodium activation gate
Saltatory conduction
a term applied to conduction of impulses along myelinated nerve fibers
Synaptic vesicle
discharge their contents by exocytosis at the presynaptic membrane
sympathetic
part of the vertebrate nervous system is most involved in preparation for the "fight-or-flight" response
telencephalon region of the brain
It is the brain region most like that of ancestral vertebrates, develops as the neural tube differentiates, develops from the midbrain, and divides further into the metencephalon and myelencephalon.
medulla
controls the heart rate
hypothalamus
produces hormones that are secreted by the pituitary gland
cerebellum
coordinates muscle actions
hypothalamus
regulates body temperature
heterotroph
can be applied to any organism with a digestive system
fluid feeders
The ticks you might find attached to your dog are best described as these
digestion
digestive processes requires enzymes
absorption
the stage where a substance must cross a cell membrane to actually enter the body,
hydra
has a gastrovascular cavity
Specialized regions are possible
advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity
peristalsis
smooth muscle contractions that move food through the alimentary canal
starch
the substrate of salivary amylase
stomach
where adigestive juice with a pH of 2 probably came from
small intestine
Most nutrients are absorbed across the epithelium of this
monomers
used accurately to describe absorbed nutrients
herbivores
long cecum can be found in these types of animals
Cows are able to survive on a diet consisting almost entirely of cellulose due to
cellulose-digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in their rumens
uric acid
main nitrogenous waste excreted by birds
amphibious
Organisms categorized as osmoconformers
isotonic
most marine invertebrates are correctly described as this