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What did Liszt create?

Symphonic (tone) poem.

Symphonice (tone) poem

1 movement orchestral work, flexible form.

Program music

Instrumental music associated with story, poem, idea, scene. Understanding the music enhanced through reading program or viewing associated work.


Music with a national identity.


Intentionally imply foreign culture.

Characteristics of Romantic Music

Individuality of style, expressive aims and subjects, nationalism and exoticism, program music, expressive tone color, colorful harmony

How does nationalism manifest itself in music?

They have to create an identity and they have to create that identity through folk songs and dances.

Romantic composers

Demise of the patronage system. Composers of the "free artists" (Beethoven). Loss of aristocrats fortune-wars. Urban middle-class audience. Many orchestras, opera groups and music conservatories found. Public captivated by virtuosity. Private music making. Piano in middle-classes homes.

Erlkonig (the Erlking), 1815 by Schubert

Is an art song. Same music through music composed. Says "My Father, My Father" and has a stomping horse.

Art Song

Composition for solo voice. Accompaniment integral part of song. Composers interpret poems, translating, mood, atmosphere, imagery into music. Strophic form and through-composed. Sometimes modified strophic form used (3 stanzas.)

Strophic form

Repeating same music for each stanza of poem (ex. hymn)


Writing new music for each stanza.

Fraz Schubert (1797-1828)

Born in Vienna, early Romantic period. Larger output (600 songs.) Aslo symphonies, string quartets, other chamber music, masses, operas, piano works.

Robert Schumann (1810-1856)

German, early/mid Romantic composer. Works intensely autobiographical and have descriptive titles, texts, programs. Gifted wroter and music critic. Piano pieces (10 years); 1840 (marries Clara Woeck): art songs. After 1840: symphonies and chamber music.

Clara Wieck Schumann (1819-1896)

German pianist; premiered works by husband Robert and friend Johannes Brahms. Also plauyed works by Bach, Mozart, Beethoven/ Important female composer (stopped at age 36.) Considered herself primarily performer. Wrote songs, piano pieces.

Frederic Chopin (1810-1849)

Polish born musician; to Paris at 21. Perferred intimate settings, not concert halls. Piano teacher to daughters of the rich. Pieces are exquisite miniatures. Mazurkas and polonaises-capture Polish spirit. "Singing" piano tone (pedals, ornaments.)

Nocture (night piece)

E flat major, Op. 9, no.2 by Chopin (1830-31). Slow, lyrical, intimate piece for piano. Note: expressive, emotional presentation with subtle shifts in tempo and dynamics. Tempo changes (rebato.)

In the Romantic period what is used or spoke about?

Nature, Shakespeare's plays, fantasys and supernatural, etc.

Expand and contrast in what period?


Etude in C minor, op. 10, no.12 by Chopin

Study piece for left hand.

Franz Liszt

Hungarian composer, pianist. At 36, became court conductor at Weimar. Later wrote oratoriors and masses in Rome. New ways to exploit piano. Daring leaps, rapid octaves, run, dynamic range. Inspired by Goethe and Dante. Typifies romantic movement stupendous performer, innovative composer, charismatic personality.

Transcendental Etude No.10 in F minor

By Liszt. virtuosic piano piece. Difficult left-handed passages. ABA'- coda form. Pianist Boris Berezovksy performing live at International Piano Competition July 2002.

Non program music

Called absolute music.

Program Symphony

Multi-movement orchestral work

Incidental music

For use before or during a play

Hector Berlioz

French, Mid-Romantic composer. Symphonie Fantastique (1830) started Parisians (autobiographical, orchestration, depiction of diabolical.) Unconventional music irritated establishment. Music journalist/critic. One of the first great conductors.

Berlioz's music

Passionate and unpredictable (contrasts.) Imaginative, innovative orchestrations. Most works for orchestra (some add chorus, vocal soloists)- dramatic and programmatic.

Symphonie fantastique (fantastic symphonie)

By Berlioz. Program symphonie. Czech nationlism.

The Moldau

By Smetana. Symphonic poem depicting the main river that flows through the Bohemian (Czech) countryside. Example of nationalism in music. Note: Program material and how composer related to the music.

Strongest impact in countries dominated by music of?

Germany, Austria, Italy, and France.

19th century American music

Americans embody Romantic characteristics. Unlike writers/ artists American composers look to Europe (Germany) for inspiration/instruction. Choral societies: 1815- Boston Handel and Haydn Society. Rural folk music. Secular music.

Lowell Mason

Reform American music (sound more European.) Hymn writer. Music education.

Star Spangles Banner

Written by Francis Key Scott during War of 1812. Patriotic music. Romantic text to British drinking song by John Stafford Smith.

Minstrel show

Most popular entertainment before civil war. Imitation of songs, dances, dialect of stereotypical African-Americans.

James A. Bland

First well-known black songwriter.

Stephen Foster

Composer of minstrel songs, songs about love, home. Nonsense songs; "Oh, Susanna."MyOld Kentucky Home"- Ky state song

Concert music by Viruosis

European soloists tour U.S. Jenny Lind.: Swedish song. Ole Bull: Norwegian composer/violinist.

Louis Moreau Gottschalk

American vituoso pianist, born in New Orleans. Studied in France (11 years); impressed Chopin. Most remembered for piano music.

"Le Bananier" (The Banana Tree)

Theme and Variations. 19th Century American music. 1798: United States Marine Band established. America's oldest continuosly active professional musical organization. Originally 32 drums/fifes---130 musicians today.

Who comes after Smetana for Czech nationalist?


New Earl Symphony


Two Italian composers

Puccini and Verdi

Who did Brahms use to put his twist on things?

Beethoven, Mozart, and Haydn

John Philip Sousa

Violinist, father in Maine Band. Director of Marine Band 1880-1892, 5 presidents. Formed own band, toured, international reputation. "American March King": 136 marches.

Verismo (realism)

Artistic trend in 1890s, ordinary people and "true to life" situations.

Brahms 3rd Symphony: what is he known for?

Lyrist and melodies

La Boheme

by Pucinni. Opera set in Paris. Act 1: Scene with Rodolfo (poet) and Mimi (seamstress). Love duet. Note; Dialogue is more realistic. Tempo shifts accentuate music and text.

Richard Wagner

German mid/late Romantic composer. At age 15, overwhelmed by Beethoven's music. Famous as opera composer and conductor. Nationalist: wrote librettos on Germanic legends and myths. Larger scale operas (music dramas.)

Die Walkure (The Valkyrie)

by Wagner. Act 1: Love scene, conclusion. Note; Huge production, large orchestrations. Big powerful voices required. Secral leitmotifs (Valhalla, love, sword, spring.)

20th Century Developments

Violence and prgress are hallmarks. Rapid technology and science advancement. Rapid, radical changes in arts. Shock becomes a goal. Modern dance; cubism, abstract painting. Contradictory styles/tendencies coexist.

Characteristics of 20th century music

Tone color is more important. Unusual playing techniques for sound effects. Glissando- rapid slide up or down a scale. Also flutter tongue, col legno, extended notes. Percussion use greatly expanded. New instruments added/created; noisemakers. Piano as percussion instrument. Less emphasis on blended sound. Unusual groupings of instruments in small ensembles. Harmony- harmony and treatment of this have changed. Rhythm- expanded, irregularity and unpredicatability, shifting meters and irregular meters. Melody- no longer tied to traditional chords, major/minor keys.


Two traditional chords sounding at the same time.

Quartal/quintal harmony

tones are a fourth/fifth apart instead of a third.

Third cluster

chord made up of tones only a half step or whole step apart.


Use of two keys at once.


Absense of tonality or key.

12 tone system

Systematic approach to atonal composition. Equal prominence to each 12 chromatic tones.


Motive or phrase repeated persistently at same pitch throughout a section.


Two or more constructing, independent rhythms at the same time.

French Impressionist Painting

Concern with effects of light, color. Atmospher- with impermanence, change, fluidity.

French Symbolish Poetry

Perferred to "suggest" (symbolize" their ropics. Basis for many impressionist musical works.

Claude /debussy

French Impressionist composer. Influences: Inspired by literary/pictoral ideas. Music sounds free/spontaneous, improvised. Impressionism: stress on tone color, atmosphere, fluidity in music. Orchestra used as pallet of sounds, not tutti. Expanded harmonic vocabulary, practice. Obscured harmony, tempo, meter, rhythm, form.

Prélude à l'Après-midi d'un faune (Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun)

Claude Debussy. Free illustration of a poem by Mallarme. Impressionist program music. ABA' with continuos flow. Note: Use of solo instruments disguished meter. Extended harmonic style.

Arnold Schoenberg

born in Vienna, self taught musician. Teacher of Alban Berg, Anton Webern. Moved to U.S (UCLA)

Schoeberg's music

1908: Antonality. 12 tones used without regard to traditional relationships. Dissonances do not resolve to consonances. Sprechstimme. The 12-tone system.


Music with no key center.


Vocal style halfway between speaking and singing.

The 12-tone system

Equal importance to all 12 tones. Pitches arranged in a tone row, series, pr set. Row is the source of every melody and chord. Composition is built by manipulating the tone row.

A survivor from Warsaw

By Arnold Schoenberg. Cantata for narrator, male chorus, and orchestra. Tells story of Nazi treatment and murder oj Jews in occupied Poland. Note: Sprechstimme- song/speech style--12 tone technique, English and German text with Hebrew prayer, and Expressionist music and text-shocking.

Anton Webern

Born in Vienna, student of Schoenberg. Music riducled during lifetime, influential later. Atonal, then 12-tone composition. Melodies built of tone colors, "atomized" into 2 or 3 note fragments.

Five Pieces for Orchestra

Third Piece by Anton Webern. Note: Traditional melody placed by tone color melodies. Dynamics never get above pp.

Less relying on expectation in what Century?


Romanticism, as a stylistic period in western art music, encompassed the years?


Which of the following is not characteristic of romanticism?

An emphasis on balance and clarity of structures.

Of all the inspirations for romantic art, none was more important than?


Drawing creative inspiration from cultures of lands foreign to the composer is known as?


Program music is?

Instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene.

The deliberate intent to draw creative inspiration from the composer's own homeland is known as?


The orchestra in the romantic period was?

Larger and more varied in tone color than the classical orchestra.

A slight slowing down or speeding up of the tempo, characteristically employed in the performance of much romantic music, is?


Which of the following statements is not true?

Romantic musicians often composed to execute a commission or meet the demands of an aristocratic or church patron.

The composer whose career was a model for many romantic composers was?

Ludwig van Beethoven.

A very important musical part of every middle-class home during the romantic period was the?


An art song is a musical composition for?

Solo voice and piano.

When the same music is repeated for each stanza of a poem, the form is known as?


When a composer writes new music for each stanza of a poem, the form is known as?


Schubert's songs number more than?


Schubert was eighteen years old when he composed the song Erlkönig, set to a poem by?

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

The form of The Erlking is?


The Erlking, in Schubert's song of that name, is a romantic personification of?


The piano's relentless rhythm in Erlkönig (The Erlking) unifies the episodes of the song and suggests the?

Galloping horse.

How does Schubert portray a galloping horse in the piano introduction?

Fast repeated notes.

In the first section we hear the narrator describing the father riding on the horse, his sick child in his arms. Then after a brief piano passage, the father sings (beginning with the words "Mein Sohn..") and is answered by his son. How does Schubert distinguish between father and son in the music?

The father sings lower pitches.

In this section we hear The Erlking sing for the first time. What is different about his music?

All three are different.

during the next section of the song you will hear the son cry out "Mein Vater, Mein Vater" three times. How do these three cries differ?

Each is higher in pitch.

In this final section the narrator tells the end of the story. We hear the horse slow down as the father arrives at his destination. How does the piano accompany the dramatic ending line "In seinen armen das Kind war todt" (in his arms the child was dead)?

3 chords.

During the first ten years of his creative life, Robert Schumann published only?

Piano pieces.

Clara Wieck Schumann frequently performed the works of her husband and of her close friend?

Johannes Brahms

A leading pianist of the nineteenth century, Clara Wieck Schumann?

Did some composing, but considered herself primarily a performer.

Romanze (romance) in the nineteenth century was often used for a(n)?

Short, lyrical piece for piano or solo instrument with piano accompaniment.

Chopin expressed his love of Poland by composing polonaises and?


While in Paris, Chopin?

Earned a good living by teaching piano to the daughters of the rich.

Most of Chopin's pieces?

Are exquisite miniatures.

A slow, lyrical, intimate composition for piano, associated with evening and night time, is the?


A study piece, designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties, is known as?

An etude.

Which of the following statements is not true?

Chopin's piano études, compositions designed to help a performer master specific technical difficulties, are primarily technical exercises without much musical value.

As a youth, Franz Liszt was influenced by the performances of?

Niccolò Paganini.

Until the age of thirty-six, Franz Liszt toured Europe as a virtuoso?


Liszt abandoned his career as a traveling virtuoso to become court conductor at __________, where he championed works by contemporary composers.


Liszt's piano works are characterized by?

An unprecedented range of dynamics, rapid octaves and daring leaps, and arpeggios

Liszt typified the romantic movement because he?

Had a charismatic personality, was a stupendous performer, and was an innovative composer.

Liszt created the ______________, a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on a literary or pictorial idea.

Symphonic poem.

The Stars and Stripes Forever by?

J.P. Sousa

Symphony No. 9 in E Minor, I

Dvorák. Adagio. Allegro Molto.

Le Sacre du printemps, Part I, Introduction


Concerto for Orchestra


A ____________ is an instrumental composition in several movements based to some extent on a literary or pictorial idea.

Program symphony

A ________________ is a one-movement orchestral composition based to some extent on a literary or pictorial idea.

Symphonic poem.

The composer who developed the symphonic poem was?

Franz Liszt.

Music intended to be performed before and during a play to set the mood for scenes or highlight dramatic action is known as?

Incidental music.

In order to support his family, Berlioz turned to?

Musicial journalism.

Outside France, Berlioz enjoyed a great career as a(n)?


Berlioz was extraordinarily imaginative in treating the orchestra, creating ____________ never before heard.

Tone colors.

The contrasting episodes of Berlioz's Fantastic Symphony are unified by the recurrence of a theme known as the?

Idée fixe.

The fourth movement of Berlioz's Fantastic Symphony depicts a?

March to the scaffold.

The citizen's sense of national identify and patriotic feelings were intensified by?

Romanticism, which glorified love for one's national heritage, common bonds of language, culture, and history. Also military resistance to Napoleon.

Composers expressed musical nationalism in their music by?

Using the rhythms of the dances of their homelands, using their national legends as subject matter, and basing their music on the folk songs of their country.

Which of the following statements is not true?

The strongest impact of musical nationalism was felt in Italy, France, Germany, and Austria.

The founder of Czech national music was?

Bedřich Smetana.

Even though Smetana was deaf at the time, he composed a musical work depicting Bohemia's main river as it flows through the countryside. The name of the river, and the musical composition, is the?


Verdi's first great success, an opera with strong political overtones, was?


Critics were often scandalized by the subject matter of Verdi's operas because they?

Seemed to condone rape, suicide, and free love.

Giuseppe Verdi mainly composed his operas to?

Entertain a mass public.

The soul of a Verdi opera is?

Expressive vocal melody.

Verdi's later operas differ from his earlier ones in that they have?

Less difference between aria and recitative, greater musical continuity, and more imaginative orchestrations.

An artistic trend of the 1890s, in which operas dealt with ordinary people and true-to-life situations, was known as?


Some of Puccini's operas feature exoticism, as in his use of melodic and rhythmic elements derived from Japanese and Chinese music in his operas?

Madame Butterfly and Turandot.

Giacomo Puccini's opera La Bohème takes place in?


In Puccini's La Bohème, Rodolfo is a young?


Mimi and Rodolfo meet for the first time in La Bohème because she has come to his door to ask for a?

Light for her candle.

Who sings the aria Che gelida manina (What a cold little hand) in La Bohème?


The composer who had an overwhelming influence on the young Wagner was?

Ludwig van Beethoven.

The librettos to The Ring of the Nibelung were written by?

Wagner himself.

A short musical idea associated with a person, object, or thought, used by Richard Wagner in his operas, is called?


Valhalla, in Wagner's Ring cycle, is?

Wotan's castle.

At the end of the first act of Wagner's opera Die Walküre, what happens?

Sieglinde recognizes the stranger as her brother and renames him Siegmund, Siegmund draws the magical sword Nothung from the tree, and Siegmund embraces Sieglinde with passionate fervor.

Which of the following statements is not true?

Twentieth-century music follows the same general principles of musical structure as earlier periods.

The most famous riot in music history occurred in Paris in 1913 at the first performance of?

Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring.

Composers in the twentieth century drew inspiration from?

Folk and popular music from all cultures, the music of Asia and Africa, and European art music from the Middle Ages through the nineteenth century.

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