19 terms

Chapter 5: Everything's an Argument

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Ad Hominem Argument
A fallacy of an argument in which a writer's claim is answered by irrelevant attacks on his or her character.
Analogy
An extended comparison between something unfamiliar with something less familiar for the purpose of illuminating or dramatizing the unfamiliar.
Bandwagon Appeal
A fallacy of argument in which a course of action is recommended on the grounds that everyone else is following it.
Begging the Question
A fallacy of argument in which a claim is based on the very grounds that are in doubt or dispute.
Dogmatism
A fallacy of argument in which a claim is supported on the grounds that it is the only conclusion acceptable within a given community.
Either-or Choice
A fallacy of argument in which a complicated issue is misrepresented as often only two possible alternatives, one of which is often made to seem vastly preferable to the other.
Equivocation
A fallacy of argument in which a lie is given the appearance of truth, or in which the truth is misrepresented in deceptive language.
Fallacy of Argument
A flaw in the structure of an argument that renders its conclusion invalid or suspect.
False Authority
A fallacy of argument in which a claim is based on the expertise of someone who lacks appropriate credentials.
Faulty Analogy
A fallacy of argument in which a comparison between two objects or concepts is inaccurate or inconsequential.
Faulty causality
A fallacy of argument making the unwarranted assumption that because one event follows another, the first event causes the second and forms on the basis of many superstitions.
Hasty Generalization
A fallacy of argument in which an inference is drawn from insufficient data.
Non-sequitur
A fallacy of argument in which claims, reasons, or warrants fail to connect logically; one point doesn't follow another.
Red herring
A fallacy of argument in which a writer abruptly changes the topic in order to distract readers from potentially objectionable claims.
Scare Tactic
A fallacy of argument presenting an issue in terms of exaggerated threats or dangers.
Sentimental Appeal
A fallacy of argument in which an appeal is based on excessive emotion.
Slippery Slope
A fallacy of argument exaggerating the possibility that a relatively inconsequential action or choice today will have serious adverse consequences in the future.
Stacking the Deck
A fallacy of argument in which the writer shows only one side of the argument.
Straw Man
A fallacy of argument in which an opponent's position is misrepresented as being more extreme than it actually is, so it is easier to refute.
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