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this quizlet covers the lecture handout and much of Taylor Chapter 34.

circadian rhythm

the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle


decreased state of activity with the consequent feeling of being refreshed


state of rest accompanied by altered consciousness

The two major stages of sleep

Non rapid eye movement (NREM), rapid eye movement (REM)

75 percent of sleep is____

___NREM sleep.

Non rapid eye movement sleep has___stages


Light sleep, where a person can be roused easily, is:

Stage l and Stage ll of NREM sleep.

Ten percent of total sleep time is spent in___

___stage lll and stage lV of NREM sleep.

Stage lll and Stage lV of NREM is also called___sleep.


The parasympathetic nervous system___

___dominates NREM sleep.

It is more difficult to arouse a person during___sleep


REM sleep consumes ____% of sleep time.


During REM sleep_____INCREASES

__pulse, resp, BP, metabolism, temp__

During REM sleep____DECREASES

___general skeletal muscle and deep tendon reflexes___

REM rebound (def).:

:when deprived of REM sleep on successive nights, the person will have more REM sleep at a later time to make up for the loss.

Sleep cycle (p.1082, fig. 34-2) -

Wake --> NREM l --> NREM 2 --> NREM 3 --> NREM 4 --> NREM 3 --> NREM 2 --> REM --> NREM 2

Q: How many cycles do people go through on an average night?

A: 4-5 cycles

Sleep architecture:

: the term coined for the alternating between NREM and REM cycles

Deep sleep occurs more at the___of the night


Factors affecting sleep:

: culture, development, lifestyle/habits, motivation, environment, psychological stress, illness, medication

Culture effects on sleep:

:differences in bedtime rituals

development effects on sleep:

:age affects sleep time, ex., babies - 16-24hr; toddlers, 8-10,12; pre-schoolers, 9-16; school age, 8-10, adults, 8

motivation effect on sleep:

:situations arise where a person wants to stay up, and also not.

Physical activity/exercise effects on sleep:

:increases fatigue and promotes relaxation, UNLESS w/in 2 hours of bedtime, where it can hinder

Diet effects on sleep:

: alcohol = sleep, lots of alcohol = bad sleep, caffeine, smoking = hinders sleep

Environment effects on sleep:

: home is best. Noisy, big city, small city. What's around you effects how you sleep and if you have adapted to it or not.

Stress and sleep:

: High stress, low sleep.

Illness and sleep:

:Certain illnesses disturb certain stages. (p. 1087)

Medications and sleep:

:Drugs that decrease REM - barbiturates, amphetamines, anti-depressants. Diuretics, anti-hypertensives, steroids, decongestants cause problems. zoloft and ambien assist in sleep.


: sleep disorders characterized by insomnia or excessive sleepiness.


:patterns of waking behavior that appear during sleep.

Insomnias usually last for___

___ a few weeks

Chronic insomnia:

:insomnia over 5 weeks to 6 months.

Acute insomnia:

: insomnia 4 weeks or less.

Approximately___suffer from chronic insomnia


Sleep hygiene:

: non-pharm steps to get better sleep. (Examples on p. 1088)


:excessive sleep.


: uncontrollable desire to sleep.

Sleep apnea:

:absence of breathing (apnea) or diminished breathing (hypopnea)

Restless Leg Syndrome:

:creeping, crawling, tingling in legs. People with iron deficiency and end stage renal disease seem to have this, but others as well.

URGE diagnosis for restless leg:

:U - urge to move legs, R - rest-induced, G - gets better with activity, E - evening symptoms more severe.

Sleep deprivation:

: Debilitating lack of sleep. Causes stress. Life shortening


:Patterns of waking that occur during REM and NREM





When 'Disturbed Sleep' is the problem, it receives either of two etiologies -

- 'Disturbed Sleep Pattern' is the problem is time-limited, or 'Sleep Deprivation' if the problem is prolonged.

Etiologies for 'Disturbed Sleep' (common ones):

: Physical discomfort or pain, Emotional discomfort or pain, Changes in bedtime rituals, Disruption of circadian rhythm, * Exercise before sleep, (list is on p. 1095)

When 'Disturbed Sleep' is the etiology, there are many diagnoses that are manifested from it, like -

- Anxiety related to inability to fall asleep, Activity intolerance, *Ineffective coping related to insomnia, (list on p. 1095)

Abnormally long sleep cycles can be the result of damage to the:


The Cerebral cortex and peripheral sensory organs stimulate the ________to bring about wakefulness.

__reticular activating system__

Eyes darting back and forth quickly is indicative of which type of sleep?

REM sleep.

Circadian synchronization -

When an individual's sleep-wake patterns follow the inner biologic clock.

What is the name of the medical instrument that receives and records electrical currents from the brain?


The Arousal Threshold is usually the greatest in Stage ____ of NREM sleep.


Which patients admitted to a healthcare agency should have a sleep history taken?

All patients.

NREM sleep deprivation is characterized by:

:fatigue, lethargy, depression, and difficulty with ADLs.

An individual's sleep cycle is fully developed by age:


The reticular activation system extends___

__upward toward the medulla, the pons, and the midbrain, into the hypothalamus.

During sleep the RAS experiences__

__few stimuli from the cerebral cortex and the periphery of the body.

Characteristics of REM sleep:

:Respirations are irregular and sometimes interspersed with apnea; Metabolism and body temp increase; It constitutes about 20-25% of sleep.

Newborns sleep an average of___hours per day


12 hours is the average___

___amount of sleep needed by preschoolers.

What amount of sleep in hours is generally considered adequate for adults?

5-7 hours of sleep.

A light protein and carbohydrate snack before bedtime____

___promotes sleep.

Insomnia therapies include:

Sleep hygiene, cognitive behavioral therapy, and stimulus control.

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