the ability of your neurons to process information, store and recall it and make decisions
excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)
usually results from Na+ flowing into the cell and cancelling some of the negative charge on the inside of the membrane
inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
some are produced by a neurotransmitter opening ligand-regulated chloride gates causing Cl- to flow into the cell and make the cytosol more negative
any voltage change in that direction makes a neuron more likely to fire and is therefore called
a neurotransmitter hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic cell and makes it more negative than the RMP - this makes the postsynaptic cell less likely to fire
are the decision making devices of the system.
glutamate and aspartate
are excitatory brain neurotransmitters that produce EPSPs.
glycine and GABA
produce IPSPs and are therefore inhibitory
ACh and norepinephrine
are excitatory to some and inhibitory to others, depending on the type of receptors present on the target cell
Some incoming nerve fibers produce __________, while others produce _____________.
The neuron's response depends on whether the ________ input is excitatory or inhibitory.
is the process of adding up post synaptic potentials and responding to their net effect
Summation occurs in the ______________
It is fundamentally a balance between EPSPs and IPSPs that enable the nervous system to make ________.
single action potential
A __________ in a synaptic knob does not produce enough activity to make a postsynaptic cell fire.
temporal summation and spatial summation
There are two ways to reach threshold and cause a postsynaptic neuron to fire
occurs when a single synapse generates EPSPs so quickly that each is generated before the previous one fades
occurs when EPSPs from several different synapses add up to threshold at the axon hillock.
Neurons routinely work in ___________ to modify each other's actions.
is a process in which one neuron enhances the effect of another.
is the opposite of facilitation, it is the mechanism in which one presynaptic neuron supresses another one.
The nervous system myst interpret and pass along both ______________ and ____________ information about its environment.
the way in which the nervous system converts information to a meaningful pattern of action potentials is called _______________.
another name for neural coding
labeled line code
the most important mechanism for transmitting qualitative information is the ______________.
labeled line code
is based on the fact that each nerve fiber to the brain leads from a receptor that specifically recognizes a particular stimulus type
Each nerve fiber to the brain is a line of __________ recognized by the brain, as representing a particulr stimulus quality - the color of light, pitch of sound, salty or sour taste.
information about the intensity of the stimulus
bringing additional neurons into play as the stimulus becomes stronger is called...
absolute refractory period
there is a limit to how often a neuron can fire, set by its __________________.
lowest, high threshold
A weak stimulus excites neurons with the __________ thresholds, while a strong stimulus excitesless sensitive _____________ neurons.
The __________ can judge stimulus strength from the firing frequency of afferent neurons.
A _______________ excites sensitive low-threshold nerve fibers.
neurons function in larger ensembles called __________ each of which consists of thousands to millions of interneurons concerned with a particular body function.
part of input neuron when acting alone can make the post synaptic cells fire
broader zone where the neurons synapses with still other neurons in the pool with fewer synapses on each of them. it can stimulate those neurons to fire only with the assistance of other input neurons
In _______________ the presynaptic neuron lacks enough synaptic contacts with a postsynaptic neuron to induce firing by itself -- but it can collaborate with other presynaptic neurons, facilitating each other in making the postsynaptic cell fire
discharge zone, spatial summation
In the _____________ the presynaptic input neuron has so many synaptic contacts with each postsynaptic neuron that it alone can induce the postsynaptic cell to fire, employing ____________.
The functions of a neural pool are partly determined by its ______________ the pathways among its neurons.