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Praxis 5622 Principles of Learning and Teaching (PLT: Grades K-6)
This is a compilation of theorists' names and their theories as well as terms, definitions, and prompts (as described within recent study guides).
Terms in this set (305)
Teacher-Based Theory - focuses on observable and measurable aspects of students' behavior. Proposes behavior can be learned or unlearned as the result of stimulus-and-response actions. Views learning as process of stimuli/responses.
Example of a Teacher-Based Learning Theory
Behaviorism (Maslow, Pavlov, Skinner, Thorndike)
Characteristics of Behaviorism (Learning Theory)
*Focuses on observable changes in behavior
*Views the teacher's role as providing information and supervising practice
*Describes learning as the result of stimulus-response actions
*Uses incentives and rewards for motivation
Applications of Behaviorism (Learning Theory)
Examples of Student-Based Learning Theories
Social Cognitive Learning Theory
Theorists focus on the ways people learn from observing one another.
Characteristics of Sociolinguistics Learning Theory
*Emphasizes the importance of language and social interaction on learning
*Views reading and writing as social and cultural activities
*Explains that students learn best through authentic activities
*Describes the teacher's role as scaffolding students' learning
*Advocates culturally responsive teaching
*Challenges students to confront injustices and inequities in society
Applications of Sociolinguistics Learning Theory
*Reading and writing workshop
Information Processing Learning Theory
Theorists focus more on what happens inside the learner's mind, considering the process of learning, memory, and performance. Some theorists compare the mind to a computer and use terms like storage, retrieval, working memory, and long-term memory.
Characteristics of Cognitive / Information Processing Learning Theory
*Compares the mind to a computer
*Recommends integrating reading and writing
*Views reading and writing as meaning-making processes
*Explains that readers' interpretations are individualized
*Describes students as strategic readers and writings
Applications of Cognitive / Information Processing Learning Theory
A student-based learning theory that suggests learning isn't observable. Rather, it involves mental processes and occurs when students integrate new knowledge with their existing knowledge. It describes students as active and engaged learners who construct their own knowledge. It suggests that people construct or create knowledge (as opposed to absorb knowledge) based on their experiences and interactions. (Piaget- Bruner)
Characteristics of Constructivism Learning Theory
*Describes learning as the active construction of knowledge
*Recognizes the importance of background knowledge
*Views learners as innately curious
*Advocates collaboration, not competition
*Suggests ways to engage students so they can be successful
Applications of Constructivism Learning Theory
*Literature focus units
Sociocultural Learning Theory
Theorists posit that the combination of social, cultural, and historical contexts in which a learner exists have great influence on the person's knowledge construction and the ways teachers must organize instruction. (Vygotsky)
This theory states that there are 3 learning domains (e.g. Cognitive, performance or Psychomotor, and Affective), and it impacts the way educators write lesson objectives, plan learning activities, and assess student performance.
AKA: Knowledge ("think" -head) - This domain of Bloom's Taxonomy involves the mind and skills or strategies one uses and is organized into six levels from lowest order to highest (e.g. knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation).
(First of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Cognitive [Knowledge] Domain) To recall information or data; key words: Recognize, List, Describe, Retrieve, Name, Find, Match, Recall, Select, Label, Define, Tell.----- Questions include: What is...?
Who was it that...?
Can you name...?
Describe what happened after...
What happened after...?
(Second of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Cognitive [AKA: Knowledge] Domain) To understand meaning of instruction and problems; key words: Compare, Contrast, Demonstrate, Describe, Interpret, Explain, Extend, Illustrate, Infer, Outline, Relate, Rephrase, Translate, Summarize, Show, and Classify.------ Questions include: Can you explain why...?
Can you write in your own words?
Write a brief outline of...
Can you clarify...?
Who do you think...?
What was the main idea?
(Third of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Cognitive Domain) To use a concept in a new situation; key words: Apply, Build, Choose, Construct, Demonstrate, Develop, Draw, Experiment with, Illustrate, Interview, Make use of, Model, Organize, Plan, Select, Solve, Utilize.---- Questions include: Do you know of another instance where...?
Demonstrate how certain characters are similar or different?
Illustrate how the belief systems and values of the characters are presented in the story.
What questions would you ask of...?
Can you illustrate...?
(Fourth of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Cognitive Domain)To separate concepts into parts; key words:Analyze, Categorize, Classify, Compare, Contrast, Discover, Divide, Examine, Group, Inspect, Sequence, Simplify, Make Distinctions, Relationships, Function, Assume, Conclusions. ---Questions include: Which events could not have happened?
If ... happened, what might the ending have been?
How is... similar to...?
Can you distinguish between...?
What was the turning point?
What was the problem with...?
Why did... changes occur?
(Fifth of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Cognitive [Knowledge] Domain) To build a pattern from diverse elements; key words:Award, Choose, Defend, Determine, Evaluate, Judge, Justify, Measure, Compare, Mark, Rate, Recommend, Select, Agree, Appraise, Prioritize, Support, Prove, Disprove. Assess, Influence, Value. ---Questions include: Judge the value of...
Can you defend the character's position about...?
Do you think... is a good or bad thing?
Do you believe...?
What are the consequences...?
Why did the character choose...?
How can you determine the character's motivation when...?
(Sixth of six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Cognitive Domain)To make judgments; key words: Design, Construct, Produce, Invent, Combine, Compile, Develop, Formulate, Imagine, Modify, Change, Improve, Elaborate, Plan, Propose, Solves.---- Questions include: What would happen if...?
Can you see a possible solution to...?
Do you agree with the actions?...with the outcomes?
What is your opinion of...?
What do you imagine would have been the outcome if... had made a different choice?
Invent a new ending.
What would you cite to defend the actions of...?
Performance or Psychomotor Domain
AKA: Skills -("do"-hands) Bloom's Taxonomy's domain which involves manual or physical skills one uses, which are divided into seven levels (e.g. perception, set, guided responses, mechanism, complex overt responses, adaptation, origination).
To use senses to guide motor activity; key words: chooses, describes, identifies, selects (First of seven levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Performance [Skills] Domain)
To be ready to act; key words: begins, moves, proceeds, shows, states (Second of seven levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Performance [Skills] Domain)
To use trial and error, imitation to learn (early stage); key words: copies, traces, follows, reproduces, replicates (Third of seven subdivisions of Bloom's Taxonomy's Performance [AKA: Skills] Domain)
To respond in a habitual way with movements performed with some confidence and proficiency (intermediate stage); key words: assembles, calibrates, displays, manipulates (Fourth of seven subdivisions of Bloom's Taxonomy's Performance [Skills] Domain)
Complex Overt Responses
To perform complex movement patterns skillfully (skillful stage); key words (same as mechanism, but adverbs or adjectives are added to indicate proficiency): assembles quickly, calibrates accurately, displays proficiently, manipulates quickly and accurately (Fifth of seven levles of Bloom's Taxonomy's Performance [AKA: Skills] Domain)
To use well-developed skills and be able to modify to fit special requirements; key words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, revises (Sixth of seven levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Performance [AKA Skills] Domain)
To create new movement patterns to fit a specific problem or situation; key words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, revises (Seventh of seven levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Performance [Skills] Domain)
AKA: Attitude - ("think -head)The third of three domains in Bloom's Taxonomy. It has five levels (e.g. receiving phenomena, responding to phenomena, valuing, organization, internalizing values).
To be aware, to have selected attention; key words: asks follows, gives, locates, uses (First of five levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Affective [Attitude] Domain)
Responding to Phenomena
To actively participate; key words: answers, discusses, helps, tells (Second of five levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Affective [Attitude] Domain)
To determine worth; key words: demonstrates, differentiates, explains, invites, joins (Third of five levels of Bloom's Taxonomy's Affective [Attitude] Domain)
To organize values into priorities; key words: arranges, alters, modifies, relates, synthesizes (Fourth of five subdivisions of Bloom's Taxonomy's Affective [Attitude] Domain)
To control behavior using own value system; key words: acts, discriminates, listens, modifies, verifies (Fifth of five subdivisions of Bloom's Taxonomy's Affective [Attitude] Domain)
Created a Taxonomy of learning domains
Creator of Social (or Observational) Learning Theory which requires several steps:
1. Attention - Attending to the lesson
2. Retention - Remembering what was learned
3. Reproduction - Trying out the skill or concept
4. Motivation - Willingness to learn and ability to self-regulate behavior
Social (or Observational) Learning Theory
Children learn by observing others. In a classroom setting, this may occur through modeling or learning vicariously through others' experiences. One important concept from this theory is Distributed Cognition.
A process in which two or more learners share their thinking as they work together to solve a problem. A person is able to learn more with another or in a group than he or she might be able to do alone. (An important concept from the Social [or Observational] Learning Theory.)
Creator of Discovery Learning and Scaffolding
Discovery Learning & Scaffolding
Two theories created by Jerome Bruner - based on his belief that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based on knowledge or past experiences.
Teaching method that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups. Created by Jerome Bruner - teaching techniques feature methods to allow a student to discover information by himself, herself, or in a group. Distance learning falls in this category.
Created by Jerome Bruner - Involves instructional supports (to the degree needed) provided to a student by an adult or a more capable peer in a learning situation. Example of Scaffolding: teacher reading a portion of the text and then asking the student to repeat the same sentence.
Established Experiential Education = Learning Through Experience - Considered the father of progressive education practice that promotes individuality, free activity, and learning through experiences, such as project-based learning cooperative learning, arts-integration activities, and teacher reflective practices.
Learning Through Experience (Experiential Education)
Created by John Dewey. He theorized that school is primarily a social institution and a process of living, not an institution to prepare for future living. He believed that schools should teach children to be problem solvers by helping them learn to think as opposed to helping them learn only the content of a lesson and that students should be active decision makers in their education.
Created eight stages of human development. He suggested that there are eight stages of human development, which are based on a crisis or conflict that a person resolves.
Trust vs. Mistrust is crisis or conflict of Erik Erikson's first of eight stages of human development -- key event = feeding -- age range: 0-1
Autonomy vs. Doubt is crisis or conflict of Erik Erikson's second of eight stages of human development -- key event = toilet training -- age range: 1-2
Early Childhood Stage
Initiative vs. Guilt is the crisis/conflict of Erik Erikson's third of eight stages of human development -- key event = independence - age range: 2-6
Elementary & Middle School Stage
Competence vs. Inferiority is crisis or conflict of Erik Erikson's fourth of eight stages of human development -- key event = school -- age range: 6-12
Identity vs. Role Confusion is the crisis of Erik Erikson's fifth of eight stages of human development - key event is sense of identity - age range 12-18
Young Adulthood Stage
Intimacy vs. Isolation is crisis or conflict of Erik Erikson sixth of eight stages of human development -- key event = intimate relationships - age range: 18-40
Middle Adulthood Stage
Generavity vs. Stagnation is crisis or conflict of Erik Erikson's seventh of eight stages of human development -- key event = supporting the next generation - age range: 40-65
Late Adulthood Stage
Integrity vs. Despair is crisis or conflict of Erik Erikson's eighth of eight stages of human development -- key event = reflection & acceptance -- age range: 65-death
Created Stages of the Ethic of Care.
Stages of the Ethic of Care
Created by Carol Gilligan - her work questions the male-centered personality psychology of Freud and Erikson, as well as Kohlberg's male-centered stages of moral development. She proposed the following stage theory of the moral development of women: pre-conventional stage, conventional, and pot-conventional.
Pre-Conventional Stage (Ethic of Care)
First of three stages of Carol Gilligan's theory - Goal: Individual Survival
Conventional Stage (Ethic of Care)
Second of three stages of Ethic of Care (created by Carol Gilligan) - Goal: Self-Sacrifice is Goodness
Post-Conventional Stage (Ethic of Care)
Third of three stages of Carol Gilligan's theory - Goal: Principle of Nonviolence
Created Theory of Moral Development
Theory of Moral Development's Levels & Stages
Has 3 levels with 2 stages in each level:
*Level 1, Pre-conventional (Stage 1, Obedience & Punishment / Stage 2, Individualism, Instrumentalism, & Exchange)
*Level 2, Conventional (Stage 3, Good Boy, Good Girl / Stage 4, Law & Order)
*Level 3, Post-Convectional (Stage 5, Social Contract / Stage 6, Principled Conscience)
Pre-Conventional Level (Moral Development)
First of three levels of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory (includes stages 1 & 2 of social orientation). Elementary students are generally at this level in which some authority figure's threat or application of punishment inspires obedience.
Social Orientation Stages are:
1. Obedience and punishment
2. Individualism, instrumentalism, and exchange
Age Range = Birth to 9
Conventional Level (Moral Development)
Second of three levels of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory (includes stages 3 & 4 of social orientation). This level is found in society.
Social Orientation Stages are:
3. "Good boy/good girl" (seeking to do what will gain the approval of peers or others)
4. Law and order (abiding the law and responding to obligations
Age Range = 9-20
Post-Conventional Level (Moral Development)
Third of three levels of Lawrence Kohlberg's theory (includes stages 5 & 6 of social orientation). According to Kohlberg, this level is rarely achieved by the majority of adults.
Social Orientation Stages are:
5. Social contract (shows an understanding of social mutuality and genuine interest in the welfare of others)
6. Principled conscience (based on respect for the universal principles and the requirements of individual conscience)
Age Range = 20+ or maybe never
A cognitive theorist who established the theory of Stages of Cognitive Development which suggested that there are four stages of cognitive development, including:
Cognitive Development Theory
Theory established by Jean Piaget. It suggests 4 stages of development, including:
First of four stages of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory. Occurs from birth to 2 years and the behavior includes:
*Explore the world through senses and motor skills.
Second of four stages of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory. Occurs from 2 years to 7 years and the behavior includes:
*Believe that others view the world as they do.
*Can use symbols to represent other things.
Third of four stages of Piaget's theory. Occurs from 7 years to 11 years and the behavior includes:
*Reason logically in familiar situations.
*Can conserve and reverse operations.
Fourth of four stages of Piaget's Cognitive Development Theory. Occurs from age 11 and up. The behavior includes:
*Can reason in hypothetical situations and use abstract thought.
Responding to a new event or object by changing an existing scheme or creating a new scheme. In other words, when students begin learning about a completely new topic, they create a mental file and place the new information in it. Piaget called this process accommodation and it is more difficult than assimilation.
Responding to a new event or object that is consistent with an existing scheme. In other words, when students already know something about a topic, the new information is added to that mental file, or schema in a revision process (according to Piaget).
A process of behavior modification by which a person comes to respond in the desired manner to what was once a neutral stimulus. Neutral stimulus has been repeatedly presented along with an unconditioned stimulus (a natural, inherent stimulus, such as the smell of food) that eventually elicits the desired response.
Knowing that a number or amount stays the same even when rearranged or presented in a different shape. For example, a child understands that a specified amount of fluid remains constant regardless of the varied ways it appears in glasses of different sizes.
A process of gathering several pieces of information together to solve a problem.
New and original behavior that creates a culturally appropriate product.
One's inability to explain new events based on existing schemes, which is usually accompanied by discomfort.
Declarative, Procedural, & Conditional Knowledge
3 stages of acquiring knowledge because knowledge is constructed, not absorbed. Used develop lesson plans that explicitly help student to: 1. Know what they are learning 2. how to complete the thinking procedure or acquire the content 3. when he or she can transfer or use the new knowledge in another situation or experience.
The knowledge of what is (student's knowledge of what he or she is learning) - first of three stages of acquiring knowledge.
The knowledge of how to (student's knowledge of how to complete the thinking procedure or acquire the content) - second of three stages of acquiring knowledge.
The knowledge of when again (student's knowledge of when he or she can transfer or use the new knowledge in another situation or experience) - third of three stages of acquiring knowledge.
A person's natural tendency to approach learning or problem solving in certain ways.
The process of mentally taking a single idea and expanding it in several directions.
Movement from equilibrium to disequilibrium and then back to equilibrium again.
One's ability to explain new events based on existing schemes.
The part of memory that holds skills and knowledge for a long time.
A person's ability to think about his and her own thinking. It requires self-awareness and self-regulation of thinking. A student who demonstrates a high level of this is ability can explain his or her own thinking and describe which strategies he or she uses to read and to solve a problem.
To use existing knowledge or skills to solve problems or complex issues.
Established the Hierarchy of Needs Theory in which certain lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs can be met.
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Abraham Maslow theorized that there are five levels of need and the higher needs cannot be met until certain lower needs are satisfied, as follows:
Level 1. Physiological
Level 2. Safety
Level 3. Love & Belonging
Level 4. Esteem
Level 5. Self-Actualization
First of five levels listed in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. These very basic needs include air, water, food, sleep, & sex.
Second of five levels listed in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. These needs help us establish stability & consistency in a chaotic world, such as a secure home & family. Safety needs sometimes motivate people to be religious, ensuring the promise of safety after we die.
Love & Belong
Third of five levels in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. This level of the hierarchy occurs when people need to belong to groups: churches, schools, clubs, gangs, families, and so on. People need to be needed at this level.
Fourth of five levels in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. This level results from competence or the mastery of the task and the ensuing attention & recognition received from others.
Fifth of five levels listed in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. People who have achieved the first four levels can maximize their potential. They seek knowledge, peace, oneness with the higher power, self-fulfillment, and so on.
Established the theory "Follow the Child". Believed there are 3 learning stages and that childhood is divided into four stages that have six year intervals in each stage. She also believed that adolescence can be divided into two sub-groups.
Learning Stages of Follow the Child
1. Introduce a concept by lecture, lesson, experience, book read-aloud, and so on.
2. Process the information and develop an understanding of the concept through work, experimentation, and creativity.
3. "Knowing" - possessing an understanding of something that is demonstrated by ability to pass a test with confidence, teach the concept to another, or express understanding with ease.
Age Divisions of Follow the Child
According to Montessori, childhood can be divided as follows:
Also, Adolescence can be divided into sub-groups, as follows:
Behavioral theorist best known for his theory of Operant Conditioning which is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in observable behavior.
Skinner's theory which is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in observable behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of a person's response to events (stimuli). When a stimulus-response is reinforced (rewarded), the individual becomes conditioned to respond. This is know as Operant Conditioning.
Best known for his theory of the Zone of Proximal Development which suggests that students learn best in social context in which a more able adult or peer teaches the student something he or she could not learn on his or her own. Credited for the Social Development Theory of Learning in which he suggested that social interaction influences cognitive development.
Zone of Proximal Development Theory
A key concept in Vygotsky's theory of learning which suggests that students learn best in a social context in which a more-able adult or peer teaches the student something he or she could not learn on his or her own.
Readiness to Learn
A context within which a student's more basic needs (such as sleep, safety, & love) are met and the student is cognitively ready for developmentally appropriate problem solving & learning.
A specific behavior that a person demonstrates.
A concept in the mind about events, scenarios, actions, or objects that have been acquired from past experience. The mind loves organization and must find previous events or experiences with which to associate the information, or the information may not be learned.
A belief that one is capable.
The process of taking control of one's own learning or behavior.
A specific object or event that influences (positively or negatively) a person's learning or behavior.
Students' ability to apply a lesson learned in one situation to a new situation. Example: A student reads the word milk in a book about cows and then successfully reads the word milk in a parent's note on the counter. A transfer may be positive or negative.
Occurs when something is learned at one point that facilitates learning or performance in another situation.
Occurs when something learned interferes with the learning or performance in another situation.
The part of memory that holds and actively processes a limited amount of information for a short amount of time.
A teacher that poses a question like, "How did people measure length before they had rulers?" best exemplifies which theory?
A teacher may use the theory of constructivism to pose a question that helps students find their own answers because the students came to the learning situation with prior knowledge regarding measurement. Their prior knowledge will help them understand the new knowledge that they create.
An assignment that involves the creation of an original piece of art could be associated with this domain.
The Psychomotor Domain because it describes creating something.
An assignment that involves the use of favorite colors could be associated with this domain.
The Affective Domain because it describes the use of favorite colors.
An assignment that involves students labeling the states and capitals on map of the U.S. could be associated with this domain.
The Cognitive Domain because it involves recalling and matching data through cognitive skills.
An assignment that involves solving conflict through the use of active discussion could be associated with this domain.
The Affective Domain because it involves students using active discussion techniques to solve conflict.
An assignment that involves solving conflict through the use of role play could be associated with this domain.
The Psychomotor Domain because it involves students acting out solutions in role-play situations.
The type of quiz given at the end of a unit to determine if the students are ready for the next unit or if the instructor needs to reteach and review the concept.
A formative assessment because this type of assessment is designed to give feedback during the instructional process, thereby assessing students' understanding prior to building on it in the next step.
May a teacher make 25 copies of a compilation of songs for his or her students to practice and perform in an auditorium for their parents?
No, because copyright laws prohibit teachers from copying music that students will perform outside of the classroom.
May a teacher make 25 copies of a short story from a book for his or her students to read in class?
Yes, because copyright laws allow teachers to make a reasonable amount of copies from a book as long as the copies are for the exclusive purpose of teaching within a classroom environment.
Developed the behavioral learning theory of connectionism which is the original S-R (stimuli & response) framework. His theory consists of three primary laws:
1. Law of Effect
2. Law of Readiness
3. Law of Exercise
In later versions of the theory, additional concepts were added:
*Spread of Effect
Law of Effect
The law basically states, "responses to a situation which are followed by a rewarding state of affairs will be strengthened and become habitual responses to that situation". First of three primary laws in Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism.
Law of Readiness
The law basically states, "a series of responses can be chained together to satisfy some goal which will result in annoyance if blocked". Second of three primary laws in Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism.
Law of Exercise
The law basically states, "connections become strengthened with practice and weakened when practice is discontinued". Third of three primary laws in S-R Thorndike's theory of Connectionism.
Law of Belongingness
The law basically states, "that reward or punishment to be maximally effective must be relevant to the situation". A law that was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism (original theory only had three laws: effect, readiness, & exercise).
Law of Polarity
The law states, "learned response is most easily given in the direction in which it was formed. (ex. alphabet)". A concept that was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism (original theory only had three laws: effect, readiness, & exercise).
Law of Spread of Effect
The law states, "reward strengthens not only the response to which it belongs, but also the responses adjacent (after or before) to the rewarded response. It gives rise to a gradient effect. The effect of reward is maximal for the rewarded response. Then its effect decreases for each step that a response is removed from the rewarded one." This is a concept that was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism (original theory only had three laws: effect, readiness, & exercise).
Law of Primacy
The law states, "the state of being first, often creates a strong, almost unshakeable impression". This is a concept that was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism (original theory only had three laws: effect, readiness, & exercise).
Law of Recency
The law states, "things most recently learned are best remembered, while the things learned some time ago are remembered with more difficulty". This is a concept that was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism (original theory only had three laws: effect, readiness, & exercise).
Law of Intensity
The law states, "if the stimulus (experience) is real, the more likely there is to be a change in behavior (learning)". This is a concept that was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism (original theory only had three laws: effect, readiness, & exercise).
Law of Freedom
The law states, "things freely learned are best learned" and "the greater the freedom enjoyed by the students in the class, the greater the intellectual and moral advancement enjoyed by them". This is a concept that was added to Thorndike's S-R theory of Connectionism (original theory only had three laws: effect, readiness, & exercise).
A measure of how spread out the numbers are.
High Standard of Deviation
This means that the students' abilities and skills are diverse.
Low Standard of Deviation
This means that the students' abilities and skills are similar.
An Example of Holistic Scoring
A teacher uses a rubric to address the scoring criteria of a student's paper. Then, the teacher balances the paper's strengths and weaknesses and assigns an overall grade.
Example of How a Teacher can Improve Content Knowledge in Science
Join the National Science Teachers Association
Example of Independent Study
Use of learning centers at which students can practice literacy skills and create learning logs
Example of a Strategy to Increase Motivation and Achievement in Students
Providing students with a menu of instructional choices
Best Solution for a New Teacher Whose Mentor is not Helpful
Meet with the principal to discuss how to manage the problem
A test that compares student's skills with peers of same grade level, thereby helping ascertain whether a student has acquired the skills needed to function successfully at his or her grade level. Example: Assessment given to determine a need for academic support.
A test designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards (i.e., concise, written descriptions of what students are expected to know and be able to do at a specific stage of their education). Used to:
*determine whether a student has obtained the expected knowledge and skills in a certain area and whether there are any gaps in learning
*used to evaluate the effectiveness of a course of study.
What is a new teacher's best first step to address the concern of managing behavior
Keeping a reflective journal about the types of problematic behaviors that occur
What is an effective strategy to encourage parents to help their child continue learning outside of school?
Posting assignments on a Web site so parents can monitor their child's work
What piece of legislation is appropriate for implementing a plan to help a student with ADHD who needs extra time to complete homework and tests?
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
Name an effective strategy to increase students' self-motivation during a unit.
Offering students a menu of activities to choose from
Name an example of an instructional accommodation.
Increasing the font size of a student's reading assignment
Name an example of a teacher who supports the theory of social learning
Using thinkalouds to model how to question text
What strategy should a new teacher use when determining instructional content?
Reviewing the curriculum standards provided by the state and school district
Established the theory of Multiple Intelligences. The six intelligence are:
Students learn best by saying, hearing, and seeing words
Students are conceptual thinkers, compute arithmetic in their heads, and reason problems easily
Students use mental pictures and visual images
Students are athletically gifted and acquire knowledge through bodily sensations
Students have sensitivity to pitch, sound, molody, rhythm, and tones
Students have the ability to engage and interact with people socially; these students have a strength in making sense of their world through relationships
Students have the ability to observe nature and see patterns
Established the theory of Three Levels of Culture. The levels include:
Concrete Level of Culture
Most vivid and tangible level of Hidalgo Nitza's theory which includes surface-level aspects, such as clothes, music, games, and food.
Behavioral Level of Culture
The level of Hidalgo Nitza's theory that is defined by our social roles, language, and approaches to nonverbal communication and helps us situate ourselves organizationally in society (for example, gender roles, family structure, and political affiliation)
Symbolic Level of Culture
The level of Hidalgo Nitza's theory that involves our values and beliefs. It is often abstract yet is key to how one defines himself or herself (for example, customs, religion, and more)
Established the theory of Funds of Knowledge which states that multicultural families have funds of knowledge which means that these families can become social and intellectual resources for a school.
The ways the student tends to approach classroom tasks and cognitive activities (e.g. auditory, kinesthetic, or visual).
Auditory (or Aural) Learner
Students who process information through listening.
Kinesthetic or Tactile Learner
Students who process information through moving, touching, and doing.
A process of learning and adopting the customs and values of another culture.
Established the theory of Advance Organizer which is a teaching technique in which an organizer is introduced before learning begins and is designed to help students link their prior knowledge to the current lesson's content (examples: KWL chart, concept map, semantic web).
Established the Theory of Assertive Discipline in which teachers clearly communicate expectations and class rules and follow through with expectations. Students have a choice to follow the class rules or face consequences.
Established the Choice Theory (AKA Control Theory) in which teachers focus on students' behavior, not students, when resolving classroom conflicts. Students have a say in the rules, curriculum, and environment of the classroom. This approach emphasizes creating a safe space to learn and promotes intrinsic motivation to learn and behave in the classroom.
Established the theory of With-it-ness in which teachers have an awareness of what is happening in their classrooms and they pace their lessons appropriately and create smooth transitions.
Established the theory of Classical Conditioning in which he conducted experiments with dogs in the 1920s. His experiment showed that dogs could have a conditioned response (salivate) to a conditioned stimulus.
When one constructs a causal explanation for failure or success.
A feeling of mental discomfort in which new information conflicts with beliefs or previously learned information.
Motivation from external sources
Motivation from internal sources
A tendency for a person to be a passive learner who is dependent on others for guidance and decision making.
The process or action of strengthening a behavior.
A learning technique to help you remember information by connecting new & prior knowledge (such as a pattern of letters, ideas, or associations that assists in remembering something. Example: Acronyms)
Teachers can use this type of graphic organizer to help students see the relationships and interrelationships among concepts and new ideas.
Teachers and more capable peers provide important positive models for learners. One of the central tenets of social-learning theory. Example: Teacher may share his or her thinking while reading a challenging vocabulary word, discussing strategies to figure out the meaning of the word.
Alfred Bandura posits that people's behavior is controlled by the individual through internal cognitive processes and external events in the environment. Example: A child may act-out due to a dislike of school. The teacher may respond by keeping the child in for recess, thereby fueling the child's disdain of school.
Type of learning which occurs through social interactin and/or observation.
The teacher offers the same core content to each student but provides varying levels of support for students.
The teacher finds the key content that must be learned and reduces the number of examples, activities, or lessons so that a student - usually one who is advanced - can demonstrate the content and move on to another level.
The teacher breaks down a unit's content into smaller units (sections) and provides support and frequent feedback to the student as he or she demonstrates understanding of each section of information.
Flexible groups are groups that change as the students' learning needs change. For example, students who need to better understand how to make inferences work together until they are proficient, and then the group disbands.
Direct Instruction Methods
Instructional strategies including demonstration, lecture, mastery learning, review of student performance, and student examination.
Indirect Instruction Methods
Instructional strategies including concept mapping, inquiry, discovery learning, case studies, and problem solving.
A direct instruction strategy. Teacher explicitly shows students what something is or how to do something.
A direct instruction strategy. Teacher transmits information to the students verbally and may include text based, technology, oral essays, or participatory aids.
A direct instruction strategy. Teacher uses a group-based, teacher-centered, instructional approach to provide learning conditions for all students to master assigned information.
Designed to enable individuals or small groups of students to interact with course content after the teacher has taught the focus lesson or while the teacher is leading small-group sessions.
Experiential and Virtual Instruction
Also known as Anchored Instruction. The student uses concrete applications of the concept being taught (the anchor) to connect what he or she is learning to a concrete experience. Example: Students learning about civil rights might simulate walking over the Edmund Pettus Bridge at a local river bridge. Teachers can also use computers to simulate experiences.
Interactive Instruction Methods
Instructional methods including cooperative learning, student teams achievement divisions (STAD), jigsaw,numbered heads together, think-pair-share, and reciprocal teaching, and more.
An interactive instructional method that requires students to work together to solve a problem or achieve a goal
Key Features of Cooperative Learning
Positive Interdependence, Positive Interaction, Individual and Group Accountability, Interpersonal Skills, and Group Processing
One of the key features of cooperative learning because students must work together to successfully accomplish a task.
One of the key features of cooperative learning because student interaction is designed to promote face-to-face or individual interaction and relationships.
Individual and Group Accountability
One of the key features of cooperative learning because students must contribute to the group's success and complete their portion of the task to receive a successful assessment.
One of the key features of cooperative learning because students must be taught and learn to use teamwork and positive social skills when working with others.
One of the key features of cooperative learning because teachers must provide an opportunity for feedback, not only on the group's product but also on the group's process.
Examples of Cooperative Learning
*Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)
*Numbered Heads Together
Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)
A cooperative learning structure for lessons in which students are assigned to heterogeneously grouped teams of four or five members who collaborate on worksheets designed to provide extended practice on instruction given by the teacher.
A cooperative learning structure for lessons in which instructional materials are divided and then studied by individuals or pairs of students. After students become "experts" on their sections of information, they share the information with the group.
Numbered Heads Together
A cooperative learning structure for lessons in which students are heterogeneously grouped into a "home team." Then each student is assigned a number so that he or she can join all the students with the same number to become an "expert" on assigned materials. For example, all the students who were assigned the number five read about and discuss music during the Harlem Renaissance. Once each of the numbered groups has had time to learn the assigned materials, the students return to their home team and teach their peers the content they have learned.
A cooperative learning structure for lessons in which the teacher poses a problem or situation and asks students to think individually. The teacher then suggests that each student pair with a peer and share his or her thinking on this problem or situation. Sometimes students then share their ideas as a whole group; other times, the students share only in pairs.
A cooperative learning structure for lessons in which the teacher and the student engage in a discussion of the text. Both the student and the teacher question and respond to the text in an effort to improve the student's comprehension of the material.
Rationally deciding what to believe or what to do. When a person rationally decides something, he or she evaluates information to see if it makes sense, whether it is coherent, and whether the argument is well founded on evidence.
A type of graphic organizer that help students identify causes and effects in narrative or expository texts. Example: Write the event in the center and then list the causes on the left and the effects on the right.
A type of graphic organizer that can help students learn key vocabulary or concepts. Example: If the vocabulary word is feelings, ask students to generate a list of words that represent feelings and write them along a positive-to-negative line chart.
A type of graphic organizer that is beneficial when a teacher wants students to understand the revolving sequence of a text. Example: Science fact of water to evaporation to precipitation...etc.
A type of graphic organizer that can be used for a variety of purposes to help students recall information. Example: The teacher might list categories along the first row and ask students to provide examples from the lesson for each category.
A type of graphic organizer in which students can use a sequence diagram, with the teacher's modeling guidance, to remember the sequence of events in a factual or fictional text.
A type of graphic organizer used with narrative texts to help students identify and recall key story elements, such as characters, setting, plot, and conclusion.
Problem- or Project-Based Learning
Includes an in-depth investigation of real-world, authentic topic or problem that is meaningful to students. The students work in small groups or pairs to solve the problem or learn more about the topic. The teacher facilitates student projects and supports students' inquiries and discoveries.
Types of Learning Groups
*Partner Check or Pair/Share
*Independent Study Sessions or Units
Other grouping techniques and strategies include:
Grouping by Gender or Interest
Similar ability groups
Factual Recall Techniques
Examples: Mnemonic devises, mental imagery, patterns of organization, recitation, questions from Bloom's Taxonomy's "knowledge" level, flash cards, games that require memory and immediate recall, and computer drill programs...
Suggesting that students form pictures in their minds
Patterns of Organization
Presenting material to students in a logical and organized manner and helping students see the pattern to the content.
Having students read and repeat important content out loud.
Questions based on Bloom's Taxonomy at the evaluation, synthesis, and analysis levels -- use open ended questions
Best Practices for Student Question Generating
*Probing for Understanding
*Modeling Higher-Level Questioning
*Highlighting Patterns and Connections
*Providing a Framework for the Questioning
*Providing Scaffolding of Instruction and Watching for Misconceptions (correcting, as needed)
A purposeful pause of time that a teacher uses to give a student and the remainder of the class a chance to think and more deeply formulate a response.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student listens to the discussion carefully and summarizes either one person's point or the entire discussion.
Note Taker or Illustrator
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student is required to use active listening and good note taking or drawing skills. The notes can be read at the close of the discussion or to open the discussion another day. A visual representation of the discussion can be shared to further the understanding of the group.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student finds a meaningful line or passage from the text and reads it to the group to trigger deeper understanding in the discussion.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student watches the time for the overall discussion, as well as the equitable chances for people to speak.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student asks probing questions or asks for clarification.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student (or teacher) manages the overall discussion to keep students actively moving toward deeper understanding.
A helpful role in a discussion in which the student (or teacher) offers a critical, constructive view of the discussion's process and content.
Initiate, Respond, and Evaluate (IRE)
A common structure for classroom questioning which may include questions from Bloom's Taxonomy:
*Knowledge: Remember, recognize, recall who, what, where...
*Comprehension: Interpret, retell, organize, and select facts
*Application: Subdivide information and show how it can be put back together (How is this an example of that?)
*Analysis: What are the features of...? How does this compare with...?
*Synthesis: Create a unique product that combines ideas from the lesson (What would you infer from...?)
*Evaluation: Make a value decision about an issue in the lesson (What criteria would you use to assess...?)
Either visual or verbal structures that provide a general idea of the new information to be learned, building knowledge of the key concepts to be learned in the lesson. (Introduced by David Ausubel)
Teacher-led discussion strategy in which the teacher engages students in dialogues by responding to questions with questions, instead of just providing answers. Although it engages higher-order thinking, it can be a time consuming technique.
A formal discussion structure in which four to eight students discuss a topic while the rest of the class listens. After the discussion, the class questions the panel members for further (whole group) discussion.
A formal discussion structure made up of a set of speeches by students from two opposing views. Debate groups present their views, followed by rebuttals of the opposing side's views.
A type of reader response in which students discuss the text by making sense of the content, the meaning of the text, or the factual points of the text.
A type of reader response in which students discuss the text by connecting personal experiences to the text, discussing thoughts and feelings about the text.
Reader + Text = Meaning
A teacher with this view of students' reading responses will strive to question students in order to help them come to their own interpretations of the text, not necessarily the teacher's or the author's view.
Helps students who have been at odds with one another to arrive at a mutually beneficial solution. The goal is to help students resolve strife peacefully and cooperatively without using the traditional school discipline plans or structures.
Used to change observed behavior. The steps include:
1. Identifying the problem behavior
2. Planning a method for changing the behavior
3. Offering positive reinforcement when the student's behavior is positive
4. Using positive reinforcement consistently to shape and change the problem behavior
Suggested 10 basic principles for the development of an Explicit Teaching session.
The teacher directly says what they are going to do, what they are going to teach, and what they want from the students. (Includes 10 basic principles)
Basic Principles of Explicit Teaching
1. Create a short statement of lesson purpose.
2. Provide a short review of previous, prerequisite learning.
3. Present new material in small steps, with student practice.
4. Provide clear, detailed explanations and instructions.
5. Provide active practice for all students.
6. Ask effective questions, check for student understanding, and encourage all pupil response.
7. Guide students during practice.
8. Offer feedback and corrections.
9. Provide practice for independent work and monitor students.
10. Continue practice until students are ready to use new information confidently and independently.
Dawn Abt-Perkins and Lois Matz Rosen
Author's of Preparing English Teachers to Teach Diverse Student Populations: Beliefs, Challenges, Proposals for Change. They suggested five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Teachers must first understand the influences of their own cultures and critique their own values... First of five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Teacher shows understanding of the importance of culture and how culture affects student views of the world...knowing students' families, languages, literacy practices, communities, and values. Second of five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Teachers must understand the patterns of communication and dialects of the students they teach...acknowledge and validate the student's home language. Third of five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Culturally Informed Teaching Knowledge
Teachers create a collaborative and culturally sensitive classroom environment...view student's differences as "funds of knowledge." Fourth of five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Knowledge of Multicultural Materials and Methods
Teacher uses multicultural literature and texts that present balanced global views of historical events offer powerful ways for teachers to show respect for their students' cultures, as well as promote cross-cultural understanding. Fifth of five important knowledge bases for teachers of culturally and linguistically diverse students.
Degree of Directness
This varies from direct to indirect. Teachers must be a good interpreter of the person's meaning and use inference to gather the person's true message. (First of four general elements of communication)
The Role of Context
Teachers must determine the amount of instinctive understanding a person is expected to bring to table (low to high) based upon cultural expectations. (Second of four general elements of communication)
The Importance of "Saving Face"
Teachers must consider an act that avoids the loss of a person's dignity or prestige. In some cultures, this is more important than in others. The degree of importance affects communication. (Third of four general elements of communication)
The Task and the Person
Teachers must consider if the culture places more emphasis on individuals or on their assigned work because this will affect the level of importance they place upon working/social relationships. (Fourth of four general elements of communication)
Standardized tests used to evaluate an individual's performance in a specific area. Examples: cognitive or psychomotor
Tests written for a variety of subjects and levels designed to measure a student's knowledge or proficiency in something that has been learned or taught. Examples: SAT, MAT, CAT -- This is the best test to determine whether a student is reading on grade level because it measures the mastery of skills.
Tools designed to provide specific information about each aspect of a task in order to share specific strengths and weaknesses of a student.
Written notes that teachers maintain based on their observations of individual children. Teachers use a variety of methods to organize these types of records, such as file folders, mailing labels, index cards, and Post-it notes.
Standardized (or norm-referenced) tests that are designed to measure a student's ability to develop or acquire skills and knowledge.
Assessment procedures that test skills and abilities as they would be applied in real-life situations. (not a multiple choice or matching type of assessment)
Standardized or norm-referenced assessments that are given before instruction begins to help teachers understand students' learning needs.
This type of question requires the students to make connections between new and previously learned content, apply information to new situations, and demonstrate (write) that they have learned the new information.
This type of assessment is given while learning is in progress and offers the teacher and the student an opportunity to monitor and regulate learning.
This can be used as an authentic assessment of a student's understanding of key concepts or his or her ability to communicate ideas in writing. Generally, the teacher assesses the process, not the product, informally.
Also known as standardized tests and used to determine a student's performance in relation to the performance of a group of peers who have taken the same test.
Observation of Students
This could be the most important assessment tool in a teacher's toolkit. Also known as kidwatching, the teacher monitors (watches) the students and then, takes notes (a.k.a. anecdotal records).
This type of assessment requires a student to perform a task or generate his or her own response during the assessment. Example: During a composition class, the student would be required to write something rather than answer multiple-choice questions or match question items.
A carefully selected collection of student products, and sometimes teacher observations, collected over time, that reflect a student's progress in a content area.
Scoring guides used in assessments. They can be analytic or holistic.
Type of assessment that measures student progress toward meeting goals that are based upon local, state, and/or national goals.
Type of assessment that provides information about learning to be used to make judgments about a student's achievement and the teacher's instruction.
Type of scoring typically used for constructed-response tests (essays, short-answer) and includes detailed descriptions of the criteria. (focuses on parts, not just the whole)
May be age-level (comparing student to children of same age) or grade-level (demonstrating the grade and month of the school year to which a student score can be compared)
Average of set of scores
Midpoint of a set of numbers
Most common number in a set of numbers
The percentage of students (of given group) that scored above or below the student's score
When you divide the normal distribution of scores into four equal parts, you can describe the student's score as it falls into one of three groups:
Q1 = The lowest 25%
Q2 = The middle 50% (median)
Q3 = The highest 25%
Equivalent to the number of questions answered correctly on an assessment
A score that is based upon a mathematical transformation of raw scores.
Standard Error of Measure
The standard deviation of test scores you would have obtained from a single student who took the same test multiple times
Derived from standard nine - based on a nine-point standard scale with a mean of 5 and standard deviation of 2. Rarely used by classroom teachers (except math teachers)
The extent to which an assessment is consistent with its measures
When a test measures what it was designed to measure
Each content area has a national organization. Example: National Science Teachers Association
'dynamic conservatism' - people will fight to resist change
Suggests that in a concerns-based reflection model, the teacher should conduct an incident analysis (deeply think about one particular teaching or learning event that concerns him or her)
Little Rock 9
In 1957, 9 African American students, nonviolently challenged segregation. The court ruled in their favor and ordered that they be admitted to the All White Little Rock High School.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
A federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of a person's disability for all services, programs, and activities provided by state and local governments.
Race to the Top
The Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA).
(of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973), is a civil-rights law prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities by federally assisted programs or activities.
Passed in 1975, is now codified as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
The Nation at Risk
This report was issued during the Reagan Administration and called for the creation of teaching, teacher education, and education standards.
Started the TESTING MOVEMENT by introducing the Stanford-Binet intelligence test in 1916 along with other tests, such as the Stanford Achievement Test.
involves students in the process of exploring the natural and/or material world in an effort to help them discover meaning
The ability to understand one's own emotions, motivations, inner states of being, and self-reflection.
NEA Committee of Ten
Created the report which resulted in the U.S. education school configuration of eight years of elementary education and four years of secondary education.
Standards that specify learning outcomes in a subject or discipline (for example, mathematics or social studies).
Standards that set the level of expectation for student groups (example grade-level or age-level).
Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggens
Suggested that teachers use a BACKWARD DESIGN when planning for standards-based instruction.
An approach to instructional planning in which a teacher first determines the desired end result (i.e., what knowledge and skills students should acquire) and then identifies appropriate assessments and instructional strategies. (suggested by Jay McTighe and Grant Wiggens -- does not include the scope and sequence of the unit)
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