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Monoprotic acids

any acid that contains one ionizable proton (H+ ion); ex: HNO3

Diprotic Acids

acids that contain two ionizable hydrogens (H2SO4)

Triprotic Acid

an acid that has three ionizable protons per molecule, such as phosphoric acid

Conjugate acid

The species produced when a base accepts a hydrogen ion from an acid

Conjugate Base

the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion

Conjugate Acid-Base Pair

consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion

Hydronium Ion

an ion consisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water; H3O+


having characteristics of both an acid and a base and capable of reacting as either

Lewis Acid

an atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond

Lewis Base

any substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond


a term describing the reaction in which two water molecules react to produce ions

Neutral Solution

an aqueous solution in which the concentrations of H+ and OH- ions are equal; pH = 7

Ion-Product Constant for Water

the product of the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water; it is 1 X 10^-14 at 25 degrees C

Acidic Solution

Any water solution that has more hydrogen ions (H+) than hydroxide ions (OH-); pH is less than 7

Basic Solution

any solution in which the hydroxide-ion concentration is greater than the hydrogen-ion concentration

Alkaline Solution

has a ph higher than 7; a basic solution


A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.

Strong Acid

an acid that is completely or almost completely ionized in aqueous solution

Strong Base

a base that completely dissociates into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution

Weak Acid

an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution

Weak Base

a base that reacts with water to form hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base

Acid dissociation constant (Ka)

the ratio of the concentration of the dissociated form of an acid to the concentration of the undissociated form

Base dissociation constant (Kb)

the ratio of the concentration of the conjugate acid times the concentration of the hydroxide ion to the concentration of the base

Neutralization Reactions

Reactions in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water

Equivalence Point

The point during a titration when the number of H+ ions and OH- ions are equal. This is at the middle of the steepest part of the titration curve.

Standard Solution

a solution whose concentration is accurately known used in carrying out a titration


process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution

End Point

the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color

Salt Hydrolysis

a process in which the cations or anions of a dissociated salt accept hydrogen ions from water or donate hydrogen ions to water


weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH

Buffer Capacity

the amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs

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