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31 terms

Chemistry 621A - Acid Base Theories (Ch 19)

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Monoprotic acids
any acid that contains one ionizable proton (H+ ion); ex: HNO3
Diprotic Acids
acids that contain two ionizable hydrogens (H2SO4)
Triprotic Acid
an acid that has three ionizable protons per molecule, such as phosphoric acid
Conjugate acid
The species produced when a base accepts a hydrogen ion from an acid
Conjugate Base
the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair
consists of two substances related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion
Hydronium Ion
an ion consisting of a proton combined with a molecule of water; H3O+
Amphoteric
having characteristics of both an acid and a base and capable of reacting as either
Lewis Acid
an atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond
Lewis Base
any substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
Self-Ionization
a term describing the reaction in which two water molecules react to produce ions
Neutral Solution
an aqueous solution in which the concentrations of H+ and OH- ions are equal; pH = 7
Ion-Product Constant for Water
the product of the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water; it is 1 X 10^-14 at 25 degrees C
Acidic Solution
Any water solution that has more hydrogen ions (H+) than hydroxide ions (OH-); pH is less than 7
Basic Solution
any solution in which the hydroxide-ion concentration is greater than the hydrogen-ion concentration
Alkaline Solution
has a ph higher than 7; a basic solution
pH
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
Strong Acid
an acid that is completely or almost completely ionized in aqueous solution
Strong Base
a base that completely dissociates into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
Weak Acid
an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution
Weak Base
a base that reacts with water to form hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base
Acid dissociation constant (Ka)
the ratio of the concentration of the dissociated form of an acid to the concentration of the undissociated form
Base dissociation constant (Kb)
the ratio of the concentration of the conjugate acid times the concentration of the hydroxide ion to the concentration of the base
Neutralization Reactions
Reactions in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water
Equivalence Point
The point during a titration when the number of H+ ions and OH- ions are equal. This is at the middle of the steepest part of the titration curve.
Standard Solution
a solution whose concentration is accurately known used in carrying out a titration
Titration
process in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
End Point
the point in a titration at which an indicator changes color
Salt Hydrolysis
a process in which the cations or anions of a dissociated salt accept hydrogen ions from water or donate hydrogen ions to water
Buffers
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
Buffer Capacity
the amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer solution before a significant change in pH occurs