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A narrow cleft-like opening between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass


A space between skull bones at birth, Filled with dense fibrous connective tissue


A depression in or on a bone


A tube like passage within a bone


A smooth, flat surface


Contents of the cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Complex organelle A network of membranes in the form of flattened sacs or tubules extending from nuclear envelope


Particles composed of protein and rRNA.
Composed of two subunits


Membranous vesicles that contain digestive and hydrolytic enzymes. Garbage disposals of the cell

golgi apparatus

Cis face accepts proteins from ER
Trans face modifies the molecules further and packages them for transport

types of connective Tissue Cells

Plasma cells
Mast cells

# of bones in the face


# of bones in the cranium


# of bones in the vertebral column


# of ribs


# of carpals


# of metacarpals


# of phalanges


# of tarsals


# of metatarsals


what are the parts of the axial skeleton

1.vertebral column


The bone matrix develops into trabeculae that fuse with one another creating an open lattice-work appearance of spongy bone


The condensed mesenchyme develops into periosteum

what are the 3 joint types

-Fibrous joints
-Cartilaginous joints
-Synovial joints

Fibrous joints

lack a synovial cavity, and the bones are held together by dense irregular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers.

Synovial joints

joint cavity present; functionally classified as a diarthrotic joint because the the synovial cavity allows a joint to be freely moveable

Cartilaginous joints

lack a synovial cavity and allows little or no movement.

what are the 4 chambers of the heart

-right atrium
-left atrium
-right ventricle
-left ventricle

Right atrium

forms right border of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from three veins

Left atrium

forms most of the base of the heart. Receives oxygen-enriched blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins

Right ventricle

forms most of the anterior surface of the heart. Pumps blood to the lungs to receive oxygen.

Left ventricle

thickest chamber of the heart; forms the apex of the heart. Blood passes from the left ventricle through the aortic valve. Pumps blood to all other parts of the body


Supplies all parts if the body with oxygenated blood and has 4 principle divisions, largest artery in the body

Coronary arteries

the first and only branch from the ascending portion of the aorta. They provide blood to the myocardium of the heart.

Brachiocephalic artery

supplies blood to the right side of the face and head. It bifurcates into the right subclavian internal and right common carotid arteries.

Right common carotid artery

supplies blood to the right side of the face and head. It bifurcates into the right internal and external carotid arteries

Right subclavian artery

supplies blood to the right upper extremity as well as throughout the right side of the thoracic region. provide blood to the upper extemities as they continue laterally to become the axillary arteries.

Left common carotid artery

The second artery to branch from the aortic arch. It supplies blood to the left side of the face and head. It bifurcates into the left internal and external carotid arteries.

Internal carotid arteries

supply blood to portions of the brain.

External carotid arteries

supply blood to the face, scalp, and neck.

Left subclavian artery

The third vessel of the aortic arch. It supplies blood to the left upper extremity as well as throughout the left side of the thoracic region. provide blood to the upper extemities as they continue laterally to become the axillary arteries.

Brachiocephalic artery

first vessle of the aortic arch

Axillary arteries

continuation of the subclavian arteries; beginning at the lateral border of the first rib and continuing until reaching the armpit region where thye become the brachial arteries.

Brachial arteries

continuations of the axillary arteries along each humorous. They bifurcate into smaller arteries in the hands. Common site for measuring blood pressure.

Radial and ulnar arteries

run alongside the corresponding bones until they bifurcate into smaller arteries in the hands. Common site for radial pulse

Vertebral arteries

branch from the subclavian arteries. They travel superiorly through the foramen magnum where they anastomose to form the basilar artery

Basilar artery

the basilar artery and the two internal carotid arteries anastomose to form the Circle of Willis, which serves as the major blood supplier to the brain.

Common iliac arteries

Formed when the abdominal aorta bifurcates just superior to the pelvic brim. Provide blood to the pelvic region, external genitals and the lower extremities

Femoral arteries

direct continuation of the external iliac arteries and they run alongside the femur bone until they reach the popliteal region.

Cerebral arterial circle

provides the major blood supply to the brain

Popliteal arteries

Direct continuation of the femoral arteries as they pass through the popliteal region. In this region the anterior tibial arteries branch from the popliteal arteries. Once through this region the popliteal arteries bifurcate to become posterior tibial arteries and the peroneal arteries.

Anterior and posterior tibial arteries

travel the entire length of the leg until they terminate in the feet where smaller branches supply the feet with blood.

Peroneal arteries

travel down the lateral, posterior portion of the leg until they reach the feet where they terminate.

Radial and ulnar veins

Formed from the deep veins of the hand
Run alongside the corresponding bones
Anastomose to form the brachial veins

Brachial veins

Formed when the radial and ulnar veins anastomose near the elbow
They pass through the region of the upper arm

Axillary veins

formed when the brachial veins and the superficial veins of the upper extremity anastomose and pass through the axilla

Subclavian veins

Direct continuation of axillary veins
The axillary veins change to the subclavian veins at the lateral borders of the first ribs

External jugular veins

Drain blood from the face, scalp, and neck
They empty into the subclavian veins

Internal jugular veins

Drain blood from the cranial vault and brain
They anastomose with the subclavian veins to form the brachiocephalic veins

Brachiocephalic veins

formed when the subclavian and internal jugular veins anastomose

Superior vena cava

Formed when the right and left brachiocephalic veins anastomose
It receives blood from the entire upper body, and then empties in to the right atrium of the heart

Anterior and posterior tibial veins

Formed by the anastomosis of deep veins of the foot
They travel along the medial side of the leg until they empty into the femoral veins

Great saphenous veins

Formed by the anastomosis of the superficial veins of the foot
They travel along the medial side of the leg until they empty into the femoral veins

Peroneal veins

join the posterior tibial veins just prior to entering the popliteal region

Popliteal veins

Formed by the anastomosis of the anterior and posterior tibial veins as well as the peroneal veins
They are located in the popliteal region, behind the knee

Femoral veins

direct continuation of the popliteal veins as they pass into the region of the femur

External iliac veins

direct continuation of the femoral veins that run through the pelvic region

Common iliac veins

formed by the anastomosis of the internal and external iliac veins just anterior to the sacral iliac joints

inferior vena cava

Formed by the anastomosis of the right and left common iliac veins
Veins from the abdominal organs such as renal veins, ovarian veins, portal veins, etc. then empty into the inferior vena cava as it makes its way to the heart
Enters the heart through the inferior, posterior portion of the right atrium

Lymphatic System

Drains excess interstitial fluid- Lymphatic vessels drain excess interstitial fluid from tissue spaces and return it to the blood.
Transports dietary lipids- Lymphatic vessels transport lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins (A,D,E, and K) absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract.
Carries out immune responses- Lymphatic tissue initiates highly specific responses directed against particular microbes or abnormal cells.

what 2 regions is the skin divided into and how many layers

1. Epidermis- 5 layers
2.Dermis- 2 layers

Stratum Basale

1) Deepest layer of the epidermis
2) New cells are generated in this layer
5th Layer

Stratum Spinosum

1)Cells in this layer are alive
2)Strands of keratin attach to the cells in this layer
4th layer

Stratum Granulosum

1)Cells in this layer of skin are still alive but are decomposing and dying
2)This layer forms an important barrier by protecting the living cells of the deeper layers from germs and injury
3rd layer

Stratum Lucidum charicteristics

2)Replaces cells lost from the first layer
3)This layer is only found in thick, hairless skin
2nd layer

Stratum Corneum charicteristics

1)Dead cells
2) Living portions of the cell have been replaced by keratin
3) Continually "sloughed off" and replaced by deeper tissues
4) Keratin is a mass of tough, densely packed protein fibers that protect the skin and underlying tissues from heat, chemicals, and bacteria


This region gives the integumentary system its strength and elasticity.

Papillary layer

1)Superficial portion of the dermis
2)Responsible for skin lines and finger prints
3)Provides blood and nutrients necessary for the regeneration of skin cells to the epidermis

Reticular layer

1)Deepest layer of the integumentary system
2)Consists of thick, elastic collagen fibers bound into a three dimensional lattice
3)Primarily responsible for the strength and elasticity of the integumentary system


is the formation of a barrier against environmental damage such as pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses) heat, UV radiation and water loss

how many types of muscle tissue are there

3- Muscular, Smooth, Cardiac

female reproductive organs

-uterine tubes
-mammary glands

male reproductive organs

-ductus deferens
-ejaculatory ducks

exocrine gland

secrets product outside of the body

endocrine gland

secretes hormones into the interstitial fluid surrounding the gland

pineal gland

secretes melatonin


regulates metabolism rate, cellular oxygen consumption, growth and development


site of pre-t cells, help hormone called thymosin

name the parts of the respiratory system



Has two symmetrical hemispheres separated by the longitudinal fissure


Second largest portion of the brain. Deals with the functions of movement, Coordination, Skilled movements, Maintenance of posture, and equilibrium

The Brain stem is made up of what structures

Medulla Oblongata (Medulla) Pons and midbrain

4 major regions of the stomach


what are the three parts of the intestines



25cm long, starts at the pyloric sphincter of the stomach


3 feet, extends to the ileum


6 feet, joins the large intestine at the ileocecal valve

Chief cells

Secretes pepsinogen: breaks peptide bonds in protein
Secretes gastric lipase: splits short-chain triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides

Major Salivary Glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual)

Secrete saliva in the lining of the mouth and pharynx
Softens, moistens and dissolves food
Cleanses mouth and teeth
Saliva amylase splits polysaccharides into smaller particles

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