99 terms

Bio 101

A narrow cleft-like opening between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass
A space between skull bones at birth, Filled with dense fibrous connective tissue
A depression in or on a bone
A tube like passage within a bone
A smooth, flat surface
Contents of the cell between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Complex organelle A network of membranes in the form of flattened sacs or tubules extending from nuclear envelope
Particles composed of protein and rRNA.
Composed of two subunits
Membranous vesicles that contain digestive and hydrolytic enzymes. Garbage disposals of the cell
golgi apparatus
Cis face accepts proteins from ER
Trans face modifies the molecules further and packages them for transport
types of connective Tissue Cells
Plasma cells
Mast cells
# of bones in the face
# of bones in the cranium
# of bones in the vertebral column
# of ribs
# of carpals
# of metacarpals
# of phalanges
# of tarsals
# of metatarsals
what are the parts of the axial skeleton
1.vertebral column
The bone matrix develops into trabeculae that fuse with one another creating an open lattice-work appearance of spongy bone
The condensed mesenchyme develops into periosteum
what are the 3 joint types
-Fibrous joints
-Cartilaginous joints
-Synovial joints
Fibrous joints
lack a synovial cavity, and the bones are held together by dense irregular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers.
Synovial joints
joint cavity present; functionally classified as a diarthrotic joint because the the synovial cavity allows a joint to be freely moveable
Cartilaginous joints
lack a synovial cavity and allows little or no movement.
what are the 4 chambers of the heart
-right atrium
-left atrium
-right ventricle
-left ventricle
Right atrium
forms right border of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from three veins
Left atrium
forms most of the base of the heart. Receives oxygen-enriched blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins
Right ventricle
forms most of the anterior surface of the heart. Pumps blood to the lungs to receive oxygen.
Left ventricle
thickest chamber of the heart; forms the apex of the heart. Blood passes from the left ventricle through the aortic valve. Pumps blood to all other parts of the body
Supplies all parts if the body with oxygenated blood and has 4 principle divisions, largest artery in the body
Coronary arteries
the first and only branch from the ascending portion of the aorta. They provide blood to the myocardium of the heart.
Brachiocephalic artery
supplies blood to the right side of the face and head. It bifurcates into the right subclavian internal and right common carotid arteries.
Right common carotid artery
supplies blood to the right side of the face and head. It bifurcates into the right internal and external carotid arteries
Right subclavian artery
supplies blood to the right upper extremity as well as throughout the right side of the thoracic region. provide blood to the upper extemities as they continue laterally to become the axillary arteries.
Left common carotid artery
The second artery to branch from the aortic arch. It supplies blood to the left side of the face and head. It bifurcates into the left internal and external carotid arteries.
Internal carotid arteries
supply blood to portions of the brain.
External carotid arteries
supply blood to the face, scalp, and neck.
Left subclavian artery
The third vessel of the aortic arch. It supplies blood to the left upper extremity as well as throughout the left side of the thoracic region. provide blood to the upper extemities as they continue laterally to become the axillary arteries.
Brachiocephalic artery
first vessle of the aortic arch
Axillary arteries
continuation of the subclavian arteries; beginning at the lateral border of the first rib and continuing until reaching the armpit region where thye become the brachial arteries.
Brachial arteries
continuations of the axillary arteries along each humorous. They bifurcate into smaller arteries in the hands. Common site for measuring blood pressure.
Radial and ulnar arteries
run alongside the corresponding bones until they bifurcate into smaller arteries in the hands. Common site for radial pulse
Vertebral arteries
branch from the subclavian arteries. They travel superiorly through the foramen magnum where they anastomose to form the basilar artery
Basilar artery
the basilar artery and the two internal carotid arteries anastomose to form the Circle of Willis, which serves as the major blood supplier to the brain.
Common iliac arteries
Formed when the abdominal aorta bifurcates just superior to the pelvic brim. Provide blood to the pelvic region, external genitals and the lower extremities
Femoral arteries
direct continuation of the external iliac arteries and they run alongside the femur bone until they reach the popliteal region.
Cerebral arterial circle
provides the major blood supply to the brain
Popliteal arteries
Direct continuation of the femoral arteries as they pass through the popliteal region. In this region the anterior tibial arteries branch from the popliteal arteries. Once through this region the popliteal arteries bifurcate to become posterior tibial arteries and the peroneal arteries.
Anterior and posterior tibial arteries
travel the entire length of the leg until they terminate in the feet where smaller branches supply the feet with blood.
Peroneal arteries
travel down the lateral, posterior portion of the leg until they reach the feet where they terminate.
Radial and ulnar veins
Formed from the deep veins of the hand
Run alongside the corresponding bones
Anastomose to form the brachial veins
Brachial veins
Formed when the radial and ulnar veins anastomose near the elbow
They pass through the region of the upper arm
Axillary veins
formed when the brachial veins and the superficial veins of the upper extremity anastomose and pass through the axilla
Subclavian veins
Direct continuation of axillary veins
The axillary veins change to the subclavian veins at the lateral borders of the first ribs
External jugular veins
Drain blood from the face, scalp, and neck
They empty into the subclavian veins
Internal jugular veins
Drain blood from the cranial vault and brain
They anastomose with the subclavian veins to form the brachiocephalic veins
Brachiocephalic veins
formed when the subclavian and internal jugular veins anastomose
Superior vena cava
Formed when the right and left brachiocephalic veins anastomose
It receives blood from the entire upper body, and then empties in to the right atrium of the heart
Anterior and posterior tibial veins
Formed by the anastomosis of deep veins of the foot
They travel along the medial side of the leg until they empty into the femoral veins
Great saphenous veins
Formed by the anastomosis of the superficial veins of the foot
They travel along the medial side of the leg until they empty into the femoral veins
Peroneal veins
join the posterior tibial veins just prior to entering the popliteal region
Popliteal veins
Formed by the anastomosis of the anterior and posterior tibial veins as well as the peroneal veins
They are located in the popliteal region, behind the knee
Femoral veins
direct continuation of the popliteal veins as they pass into the region of the femur
External iliac veins
direct continuation of the femoral veins that run through the pelvic region
Common iliac veins
formed by the anastomosis of the internal and external iliac veins just anterior to the sacral iliac joints
inferior vena cava
Formed by the anastomosis of the right and left common iliac veins
Veins from the abdominal organs such as renal veins, ovarian veins, portal veins, etc. then empty into the inferior vena cava as it makes its way to the heart
Enters the heart through the inferior, posterior portion of the right atrium
Lymphatic System
Drains excess interstitial fluid- Lymphatic vessels drain excess interstitial fluid from tissue spaces and return it to the blood.
Transports dietary lipids- Lymphatic vessels transport lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins (A,D,E, and K) absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract.
Carries out immune responses- Lymphatic tissue initiates highly specific responses directed against particular microbes or abnormal cells.
what 2 regions is the skin divided into and how many layers
1. Epidermis- 5 layers
2.Dermis- 2 layers
Stratum Basale
1) Deepest layer of the epidermis
2) New cells are generated in this layer
5th Layer
Stratum Spinosum
1)Cells in this layer are alive
2)Strands of keratin attach to the cells in this layer
4th layer
Stratum Granulosum
1)Cells in this layer of skin are still alive but are decomposing and dying
2)This layer forms an important barrier by protecting the living cells of the deeper layers from germs and injury
3rd layer
Stratum Lucidum charicteristics
2)Replaces cells lost from the first layer
3)This layer is only found in thick, hairless skin
2nd layer
Stratum Corneum charicteristics
1)Dead cells
2) Living portions of the cell have been replaced by keratin
3) Continually "sloughed off" and replaced by deeper tissues
4) Keratin is a mass of tough, densely packed protein fibers that protect the skin and underlying tissues from heat, chemicals, and bacteria
This region gives the integumentary system its strength and elasticity.
Papillary layer
1)Superficial portion of the dermis
2)Responsible for skin lines and finger prints
3)Provides blood and nutrients necessary for the regeneration of skin cells to the epidermis
Reticular layer
1)Deepest layer of the integumentary system
2)Consists of thick, elastic collagen fibers bound into a three dimensional lattice
3)Primarily responsible for the strength and elasticity of the integumentary system
is the formation of a barrier against environmental damage such as pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses) heat, UV radiation and water loss
how many types of muscle tissue are there
3- Muscular, Smooth, Cardiac
female reproductive organs
-uterine tubes
-mammary glands
male reproductive organs
-ductus deferens
-ejaculatory ducks
exocrine gland
secrets product outside of the body
endocrine gland
secretes hormones into the interstitial fluid surrounding the gland
pineal gland
secretes melatonin
regulates metabolism rate, cellular oxygen consumption, growth and development
site of pre-t cells, help hormone called thymosin
name the parts of the respiratory system
Has two symmetrical hemispheres separated by the longitudinal fissure
Second largest portion of the brain. Deals with the functions of movement, Coordination, Skilled movements, Maintenance of posture, and equilibrium
The Brain stem is made up of what structures
Medulla Oblongata (Medulla) Pons and midbrain
4 major regions of the stomach
what are the three parts of the intestines
25cm long, starts at the pyloric sphincter of the stomach
3 feet, extends to the ileum
6 feet, joins the large intestine at the ileocecal valve
Chief cells
Secretes pepsinogen: breaks peptide bonds in protein
Secretes gastric lipase: splits short-chain triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides
Major Salivary Glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual)
Secrete saliva in the lining of the mouth and pharynx
Softens, moistens and dissolves food
Cleanses mouth and teeth
Saliva amylase splits polysaccharides into smaller particles