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30 terms

Psych Chapter 6 Test

STUDY
PLAY
Form of classical conditioning in which a food comes to be avoided
taste aversion
Act of responding in the same way to stimuli that seem similar
generalization
Method of overcoming fears by pairing a pleasing stimulus with a feared one
counterconditioning
Form of learning based on the consequences of actions
operant
When a conditional response stops occurring
extinction
Stimulus that causes an automatic response
unconditioned stimulus
Stimulus that encourages a behavior by meeting an organism's basic biological needs
primary reinforcer
Revival of an extinguished response
spontaneous recovery
Something that produces a response is called a _____
stimulus
A response that is automatic, or not learned is called a(n) _____
unconditional response
The method of _____ involves exposing a person to a harmless stimulus until he or she is no longer afraid of it
flooding
A stimulus that becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response is a(n) _____
conditioned stimulus
_____ is the method of teaching complex behaviors by breaking them down into manageable parts
Shaping
The form of learning that keeps knowledge hidden until it is needed is called _____
latent
A(n) _____ reinforcer is learned and becomes effective by being paired with such reinforcers as food and shelter
secondary
A(n) _____ reinforcer increases the frequency of the behavior it follows when it is applied
positive
The type of learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates others is called _____
observational learning
Ivan Pavlov's experiments with dogs yielded information about
classical conditioning
A conditional response occurs
as a result of pairing an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned stimulus
A conditioned response may be extinguished when
the conditioned stimulus is no longer followed by an unconditioned stimulus
Classical conditioning can be applied to help overcome fears using the method of
all of the above (flooding, systematic desensitization, counterconditioning)
Through operant conditioning, people learn to control
voluntary responses
The process by which a stimulus increases the changes of a preceding behavior occurring again is called
reinforcement
The process of learning to ride a bicycle is an example of
shaping
People who watch a lot of violence on television are more likely to be violent in part because of
observational learning
An effective method for dealing with a misbehaving elementary-school student is
positive reinforcement
In John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner's experiment, "Little Albert" began to fear all objects that were white and furry because of
generalization
Most psychologists suggest that punishment is not the best way to deal with a problem because it
all of the above
Spontaneous recovery can occur
when the conditioned stimulus starts again
Primary and secondary reinforcers are important in
operant conditioning