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bundles of fibers passing information up and down spinal cord, connecting different levels of the trunk with each other and with the brain
sylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brainstem at the foramen magnum of the skull
layer of simple squamous epithelium lining dura mater and a loose mesh of collagen and elastic fibers spanning the gap between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater.
fibrous strand of pia mater that extends beyond the medullary cone within the lumbar cistern
formed from fusion of terminal filum and dura mater. anchors the cord and meninges to vertebra Co1
extend through the arachnoid to the dura. anchors spinal cord to limit side to side movement
congenital defect in which one or more vertebrae fail to form a complete vertebral arch for enclosure of the spinal cord.
as the fibers pass up or down the brainstem and spinal cord they cross over from the left to the right and vise versa.
when the origin and destination of a tract are on the same side of the body. does not decussate
third order neuron
carries the signal the rest of the way to the sensory region of the cerebral cortex
formed from the second order neurons of gracile and cuneate sustems that decussate in the medulla
one fo the smaller tracts of the anterolateral system. passes up the anterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord. carrys signals for pain, pressure, temp, light touch, tickle, and itch.
begins in midbrain region (tectum). reflex turning of head in response to sights and sounds.
cluster of neurosomas outside the CNS enveloped in an endoneurium continuous with that of the nerve
consists of both afferent and efferent fibers and thus conducts signals in two directions.
innervates the muscles and joints in that region of the spine and the skin of the back.
reenters the vertebral canal and innervates the meninges vertebrae and spinal ligaments
sharp pain that travels from gluteal region along the posterior side of the thigh and leg to ankle
localized disease caused by the virus traveling down the sensory nerves by fast axonal trasport when immune system is compromised.
stretch (myotatic) reflex
when a muscle is stretched, it fights back and contracts which maintains increased tonus making it stiffer than unstretched muscle.
reflex phenomenon that prevents muscles from working against each other by inhibiting the antagonist.
the quick contraction of flexor muscles resulting in the withdrawl of a limb from an injurious stimulus.
polysynaptic reflex arc
pathway in which signals travel over many synapses on their way back to the muscle
crossed extension reflex
the contraction of extensor muscles in the limb opposite of the one that is withdrawn
ipsilateral reflex arc
one in which the sensory input and the motor output are on the same sides of the spinal cord
one in which the input and output occur at different levels (segments) of the spinal cord
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