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Proximal convoluted tubule.

Site at which most of the tubular reabsorption occurs.

Peritubular capillaries.

Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.


Site of filtrate formation.

Collecting duct.

Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.


If the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed and instead are lost in the urine.


In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the loop of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the countercurrent exchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient extending from the cortex through the depths of the medulla that allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically.


The ureter transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.


Water reabsorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas water reabsorption through the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption.


The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal.


The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.


Urine is 95% water by volume.


The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding.


Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.


In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water.


The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH.


The urethra contains an internal sphincter of smooth muscle.


Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress.


Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate.


Blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than in most parts of the body in order to conserve body water.


The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.


Urea is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle.


Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition.


The myogenic mechanism reflects the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to stretch.


An excessive urine output is called anuria.


Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.


The trigone is so named because of the shape of the urinary bladder.


Atrial naturetic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption.


The macula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the urea content of the filtrate.


Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.


Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along an osmotic gradient.


Having a kinked ureter is called renal ptosis.

loop of Henle

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.

pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

Urine passes through the ________.

a vasa recta

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?

increase in the production of ADH

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.


The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.

by a decrease in the blood pressure

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.

eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?


Which gland sits atop each kidney?


The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.

is drained by an efferent arteriole

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.

contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________.

The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.

Select the correct statement about the ureters.

stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.

Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.


The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.

regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________.

glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.

They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).

Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?

The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?

the stretching of the bladder wall

Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?

renal fascia

The filtration membrane includes all except ________.


The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.

hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.

changes in solute content of the filtrate

The macula densa cells respond to ________.


Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?

plasma protein

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.

inhibits the release of ADH

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.

constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

The function of angiotensin II is to ________.

diabetes insipidus

A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________.


An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.

nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, urethra

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

Select the correct statement about the nephrons.

Net filtration would decrease.

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?

podocyte cells

Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical gradient

Tubular reabsorption ________.

They are extremely complex molecules.

Which of the following is not a reason why substances are either not reabsorbed or are incompletely reabsorbed from the nephron?

secondary active transport

Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by ________.

form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle?

the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood

Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because ________.

Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?

glomerular hydrostatic pressure

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.

appear in the urine

If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid will ________.

Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?

impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.

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