The treatment of psychological disorders through talking and other psychological methods
Medical doctors who have completed special training in the treatment of psychological disorders
Among therapists, those whose education includes completion of a master?s or (usually) a doctoral degree in clinical or counseling psychology, often followed by additional specialty training.
A method of psychotherapy that seeks to help clients gain insight by recognizing and understanding unconscious thoughts and emotions.
Freud asked patients to lie on a couch and report whatever thoughts, memories, or images came to mind
Classical psychoanylitc treatment aims first to help troubled people gain ______ into their problems by recognizing unconsious thoughts and emotions
If a patient mistakenly used the name of a former ex girlfriend while talking about his wife Freud might wonder if the patient unconsiously regrets his marriage
Client -centered therapy
A therapy that allows the client to decide what to talk about, without direction, judgment, or interpretation from the therapist.
The therapist?s attempt to appreciate and understand how the world looks from the client?s point of view
An active listening method in which a therapist conveys empathy by paraphrasing clients? statements and noting accompanying feelings.
An active treatment designed to help clients get in touch with genuine feelings and disown foreign ones.
Cognitive -Behavior Therapy
Learning-based treatment methods that help clients change the way they think, as well as the way they behave
A behavioral treatment for anxiety in which clients visualize a graduated series of anxiety-provoking stimuli while remaining relaxed.
Behavior therapy methods in which clients remain in the presence of strong anxiety-provoking stimuli until the intensity of their emotional reactions decrease.
An exposure technique for reducing anxiety that involves keeping a person in a feared, but harmless, situation
Assertiveness and Social Skills Training
Methods for teaching clients how to interact with others more comfortably and effectively.
The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response or operant behavior through nonreinforcement
A therapy method that weakens undesirable behavior by following it with an unpleasant stimulus.
A method that uses classical conditioning to create a negative response to a particular stimulus.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Learning-based treatment methods that help clients change the way they think, as well as the way they behave.
Rational -emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
A treatment designed to identify and change self-defeating thoughts that lead to anxiety and other symptoms of disorder.
Behavioral techniques aimed at replacing upsetting thoughts with alternative thinking patterns
Stress Inoculation Training
Clinets imagine being in a stressful situation then practice newly learned cognitive skills to remain calm
A treatment in which the therapist helps clients to notice and change negative thoughts associated with anxiety and depression.
Beck's treatment approach is based on the idea that certain psychologcial disorders especially those involving depression and anxiety can be traced to errors in logic
Mindfulness -based cognitve therapy
Some cognitve therapists encourage clinets to use traditional eastern practices such as meditation to help monitor problematic thoughts
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Brief electrical shock administered to the brain, usually to reduce depression that does not respond to drug treatments.
Lithium and Anticonvulsants
Mood stabalizer: could prevent the mania associated with bipolar disorder if take reguarly. Divalproex, lamotrigine have been used as an alternative, have fewer side effects, less dangerous at higher doses, and easier to regulate