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The treatment of psychological disorders through talking and other psychological methods


Medical doctors who have completed special training in the treatment of psychological disorders


Among therapists, those whose education includes completion of a master?s or (usually) a doctoral degree in clinical or counseling psychology, often followed by additional specialty training.


A method of psychotherapy that seeks to help clients gain insight by recognizing and understanding unconscious thoughts and emotions.

Free Association

Freud asked patients to lie on a couch and report whatever thoughts, memories, or images came to mind


Classical psychoanylitc treatment aims first to help troubled people gain ______ into their problems by recognizing unconsious thoughts and emotions

"Freudian Slip"

If a patient mistakenly used the name of a former ex girlfriend while talking about his wife Freud might wonder if the patient unconsiously regrets his marriage

Client -centered therapy

A therapy that allows the client to decide what to talk about, without direction, judgment, or interpretation from the therapist.


The therapist?s attempt to appreciate and understand how the world looks from the client?s point of view


An active listening method in which a therapist conveys empathy by paraphrasing clients? statements and noting accompanying feelings.


A consistency between the way therapists feel and the way they act toward clients.

Gestalt Therapy

An active treatment designed to help clients get in touch with genuine feelings and disown foreign ones.

Behavior Therapy

Treatments that use classical conditioning principles to change behavior.

Behavior Modification

Treatments that use operant conditioning methods to change behavior.

Cognitive -Behavior Therapy

Learning-based treatment methods that help clients change the way they think, as well as the way they behave

Systematic Desensitization

A behavioral treatment for anxiety in which clients visualize a graduated series of anxiety-provoking stimuli while remaining relaxed.

Exposure Techniques

Behavior therapy methods in which clients remain in the presence of strong anxiety-provoking stimuli until the intensity of their emotional reactions decrease.


An exposure technique for reducing anxiety that involves keeping a person in a feared, but harmless, situation


Demonstrating desirable behaviors as a way of teaching them to clients.

Assertiveness and Social Skills Training

Methods for teaching clients how to interact with others more comfortably and effectively.

Positive Reinforcment

A therapy method that uses rewards to strengthen desirable behaviors.


The gradual disappearance of a conditioned response or operant behavior through nonreinforcement


A therapy method that weakens undesirable behavior by following it with an unpleasant stimulus.

Aversion Conditioning

A method that uses classical conditioning to create a negative response to a particular stimulus.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Learning-based treatment methods that help clients change the way they think, as well as the way they behave.

Rational -emotive behavior therapy (REBT)

A treatment designed to identify and change self-defeating thoughts that lead to anxiety and other symptoms of disorder.

Cognitive Restructuring

Behavioral techniques aimed at replacing upsetting thoughts with alternative thinking patterns

Stress Inoculation Training

Clinets imagine being in a stressful situation then practice newly learned cognitive skills to remain calm

Cognitve Therapy

A treatment in which the therapist helps clients to notice and change negative thoughts associated with anxiety and depression.

Cognitive Disortions

Beck's treatment approach is based on the idea that certain psychologcial disorders especially those involving depression and anxiety can be traced to errors in logic

Mindfulness -based cognitve therapy

Some cognitve therapists encourage clinets to use traditional eastern practices such as meditation to help monitor problematic thoughts

Group Therapy

Psychotherapy involving several unrelated clients

Family Therapy

Treatment of two or more individuals from the same family

Couples Therapy

A form of therapy focusing on improving communication between partners


treatment of psychological disorders through talking and other psychological methods.

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

Brief electrical shock administered to the brain, usually to reduce depression that does not respond to drug treatments.


Drugs that alleviate the symptoms of severe disorders such as schizophrenia.


Drugs that relieve depression

Lithium and Anticonvulsants

Mood stabalizer: could prevent the mania associated with bipolar disorder if take reguarly. Divalproex, lamotrigine have been used as an alternative, have fewer side effects, less dangerous at higher doses, and easier to regulate

Community Psychology

A movement to minimize or prevent psychological disorders through changes in social systems and through community mental health programs

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