What are the main approaches to Sound Elicitation?
-Auditory Stimulation -Phonetic Placement -Sound Approximation (shaping) -Metaphor (the "snake" sound) -Manipulation of Articulators
What is Auditory Stimulation?
-can be used when a client can and CAN'T produce a given sound -client imitates correct production of a sound
What are the 2 types of Auditory Stimulation?
Elicited Imitation Elicited Production
What is Elicited Imitation? (Auditory Stim)
Client repeats exactly what clinician says in order to model the correct form of the target sound.
What is Elicited Production? (Auditory Stim)
SLP sets up a context to encourage client to produce the target sound i.e. picture cards, books, toys. Goal is to spontaneously elicit sound on own.
What is Phonetic Placement?
Tell child where to put articulators and what to do with them and how breath stream should be.
What is Sound Approximation?
Focuses on using a sound a client can already produce to assit in the production of a new sound -(aka- sound shaping)
What is Manipulation of Articulators?
Using gloved hands to physically move and manipulate the articulators into the correct placement for sound production
What is the correct production/ Phonetic Placement of /s/ ?
raising tongue to alveolar ridge without making direct contact, while forming a groove along the midline while back of tongue makes contact with upper molars
What is the age of mastery for /s/?
3-8 with most children producing it by age of 5
Under what 2 conditions will /s/ take longer to produce?
missing teeth, if child is 2nd language english language learner
How is /t/ used in eliciting /s/?
have client produce sound a few times alternating it with /s/ and reminding them to relax and let air out
How is a straw used in /s/ elicitation?
by demonstrating appropriate placement for whistle sound to be produced -hold straw at center of lips and make /s/ -move straw around mouth to show have to push air out of front of mouth to get straw to "whistle"
How can a straw be used in correcting a lateral /s/ lisp?
place straw around the sides to demonstrate when air is forced out around the tongue the straw won't whistle
How does the upside down "U"drawing help elicit /s/ sound?
to visualize the tongue should be touching all around the mouth except the front to allow air to escape
What is a lateral /s/ lisp?
tongue lying flat on mouth rather than curling upward resulting in a "slushy, wet" /s/ sound
How are Bilateral and Unilateral /s/ lisps different?
-when air turbulance is released over one side of tongue is Unilateral -when air released over both sides of tongue and into cheeks is Bilateral
What are 2 reasons for waiting on therapy for lateral lisp correction?
still losing teeth and teeth positioning must be corrected first
Methods to treat lateral lisps
turning it into a frontal lisp by modeling correct and incorrect productions
What is the 1st step in correcting lateral lisp?
getting airflow to correctly move forward from the front of the mouth
What is the 2nd step to correcting lateral lisp
slowly move tongue back while forcing airflow-for tongue up tip is almost touching the alveolar ridge, for tongue down-tip is almost touching the bottom incisors
How is Shaping/ Sound Approx. used in treating lateral lisp?
use the /k/ forward moving air flow to then work on correct tongue placement
What is a Sound Approx./ Shaping method for /s/?
- if child can make /z/- make /z/ sound and "turn off their motor" voice
How can /sh/ be Shaped/ Approx into /s/?
-say /sh/, draw mouth back into smile to form /s/-can help put tongue into the /s/ position
How can /th/ be used to Shape/ Approximate /s/?
produce /th/ sound, then slowly pull tongue behind teeth to make /s/
How is the butterfly position used in treating a lateral /s/ lisp?
client visualizes the correct position, learns to direct air flow along central groove (middle of butterfly) and not laterally (wings)
What 2 alveolars must be mastered before moving on to the lateral /s/?
the /t/ and /d/ alveolar stops
How is a bite block helpful in treating a lateral /s lisp/?
artificially creating an open bite to view placement and movement
When using a bite block why is viewing /t/ isolation production important in /s/ elicitation?
it shows child can produce sound with the parameters of /s/and it will be easier correcting lateral lisp
What should a client be able to do before working on /r/ production?
Have correct auditory discrimination of /r/ among other sounds and from distorted productions of /r/
What is a Phonetic Placement method for /r/?
-place tongue tip behind upper front teeth, can use tongue depressor -curl tongue bakward without touching roof of mouth until it can't go back further -lower jaw and say /ru/
What is another Phonetic Placement method for /r/?
Lie down or tilt head back to help tongue drop toward back of mouth.
What is a method for Shaping/ Approx /l/ to /r/?
-place tongue tip on alveolar ridge to make /l/ -say /l/ several times and then for 5 seconds -say a long /l/ but drag tongue tip back along roof of mouth until tongue has to drop making a /r/
What are some Imitation strategies for /r/ production?
-Clinician models, client watches -Client imitates clinician while looking in mirror -Use a puppet or tongue model to show correct placement
What are some good tactile-kinethestic strategies for /r/?
-"flavor" the placement areas for the tongue to go for -use a tongue depressor to lif tongue up an back -place 2 fingers on lower lip to prevent lip rounding
What is a good Metaphor method for /r/?
Have client lift tongue up and back and demonstrate the rooster crow "ER-ER-ER!"
How can Auditory Stimulation be used to elicit /l/?
-Elicited Imitation child hear and attempts to repeat correct clinician production -Elicited Production use mirror to see correct placement, and use materials with /l/ words
What is the Correct Phonetic placement for /l/?
-light contact of tongue tip on alveolar ridge -closed in middle and open on sides for air to escape
What are some Phonetic Placement strategies for /l/?
-touch alveolar ridge with tongue depressor -tip head to make alveolar ridge visible -have client feel "bump" behind teeth -explain is a voiced sound- feel throat vibrate
What is the "Life Saver-Peanut Butter" method of /l/ production?
-rub a Lifesaver or place some PB on correct position on alveolar ridge to flavor the spot for tongue to go -place tongue on flavored spot and let air flow out from sides of tongue -then "turn on motor" to a voiced sound
What are some Sound Approximations for /l/ production?
uses a sound client CAN produce to make the target sound -make /a/ and keep "motor running" and raise tongue to alveolar ridge to form /l/