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_________ _______ ______ (ANS) is the division of the peripheral nervous system that innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & glands

autonomic nervous system

what is the name for tissues associated with the viscera (internal organs) of the body?

viseral effectors

the neurons of the ANS are referred to as _________ _____ _______

autonomic motor neurons

the ____ ______ of most autonomic motor neurons are found in the _______ ____ ____ of the spinal cord (thoriacic, upper lumbar or sacral regions)

cell bodies, lateral gray horn

where do other autonomic motor neurons have their cell bodies?

the brain stem

autonomic motor neurons regulate viseral activities by either __________ (exciting) or __________ (inhibiting) ongoing activities in their effectors

increasing, decreasing

3 examples of autonomic responses include adjustment of the rate & force of the _________, ________ or ____________ of the bronchial tubes of the lungs & secretion of _________ _______

heartbeat, dialation, constriction, secretion

the action of the ANS is ___________ b/c its motor responses are not normally under concious control


what are the names of the 2 branches of the ANS?

parasympathetic nervous system & sympathetic nervous system

organs recieve nerves from both branches of the ANS, an arrangement known as ____ ___________

dual innervation

one branch of the ANS __________ the organ to increase its activity (excitation) & other branch decreases the organ's activity (__________)

stimulates, inhibition

_______________ _______ ______ is located in the sacral region & brain stem

parasympathetic nervous system

___________ _______ ______ is located in the thoracic & upper lumbar regions

sympathetic nervous system

parasympathetic nervous system enhances ____ & ______ activities

rest & digest

the rest & digest activities conserve & restore the body energy during times of ____ & ________

rest & recovery

sympathetic nervous system promotes _____ or ______ response

fight or flight

the fight or flight response prepares the body for _________ __________

emergency situations

an _________ _____ ________ consist of 2 automatic motor neurons in series

autonomic motor pathway

what are the 2 autonomic motor neurons?

preganglionic neuron & postganglionic neuron

the first neuron, cell body is in the brain stem or S.C. & extends to an autonomic ganglion, then synapses w/ postganglionic neuron

preganglionic neuron

the second neuron, cell body is in an autonomic ganglion &axon extends from ganglion to visceral effector (smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, gland)

postganglionic neuron

a cluster of cell bodies of sympathetic or parasympathetic neurons in the PNS is an

autonomic ganglion

________ _______ are located close to or actually w/ in the walls of the visceral effector

terminal ganglion

what are the names of the 4 terminal ganglion in the head?

ciliary ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion, otic ganglion

___________ _____ is a chain of ganglia located on either side of the spinal cord

sympathetic trunk

____________ (__________) _______ are individual ganglia that are not associated w/ sympathetic trunk

prevertebral (collateral) ganglia

__________ _____ are modified sympathetic postganglionic neurons that lack dendrites and axons

chromaffin cells

these cells release hormones into the blood rather than extending to another organ

chromaffin cells

chromaffin cells release a mixture of catecholamin hormones- 80% ___________, 20% ______________, & trance amount of ________

epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine

parasympathetic nervous system dominates the sympathetic nervous system during periods of ____ & ______

rest & digest

what 4 responses are caused from activation of the parasympathetic nervous system?

contraction of circular smooth muscle, relaxation of radial smooth muscle; relaxation of cardiac muscle; reduced breathing rate & increased contraction of smooth muscle in walls of bronchi & bronchioles of lungs; increased digestive system activity

sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for _________ __________

emergency situations

activation of the sympathetic nervous sytem causes the "_____-__-______ ________"

flight-or-flight response

what 6 responses are caused from the activation of the sympathetic nervous system?

relaxation of circular smooth muscle & contraction of radial smooth muscle; contraction of cardiac muscle; relaxation of smooth muscle of bronchi & bronchioles of the lungs; relaxation of smooth muscle in walls of blood vessels; contraction of smooth muscle in wall of blood vessels; relaxation of smooth muscle in wall of urinary bladder

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